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Indonesian words are spoken as they are written. Vowels pronounciation:
|a||AH like "a" in "father"|
|e||AY like "a" in "date", or UH like "a" in "about",4
or E like "e" in "bed"
|i||EE like "ee" in "see"|
|o||OH like "o" in "no", or AW like "o" in "on"|
|u||OO like "ou" in "you"|
Sentence Composition Edit
Common sentence structure:
Subject – Verb – Object
Note that in Indonesian we don't have articles (a, an, the) and we don't discriminate between the singular form and the plural form of a noun. That's right, the word stays the same whether there is only one of it or there are more than one!
|Saya mau apel||I want an apple|
|Saya mau apel||I want apples|
|Kamu mau jeruk||You want an orange|
|Kamu mau jeruk||You want oranges|
You’ll find more tips and notes throughout the courses. Selamat belajar!
Self-Introduction Phrases Edit
Literally meaning "What (your) news" in English, Apa kabar actually means “How are you” or “How do you do”.
Siapa is used instead of apa for asking a person’s name in Indonesian. A fuller explanation Click Here (https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/27985133)
Indonesian Noun Phrase Edit
Generally, the sentence structure of Indonesian and English is similar. But, the structure of noun phrases is opposite to English, the main noun position is before the modifier noun.
- Nama saya = My name
- Apel merah = Red apple
More info abut the word order in a noun phrase: https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/31285942
To be Edit
In spoken Indonesian, You don’t need to translate “to be” (is, am, are). To be means adalah in Indonesian. Even, in written the function of it is just to emphasize the noun, sometimes it is also omitted.
For example: My name is Jon = Name saya Jon
No in Indonesian Edit
Indonesian has some ways to express “no” (bukan, tidak, jangan and belum). Bukan is used to negate nouns and adverbs, Tidak is used to negate verbs and adjectives, Jangan is to tell somebody not to do something and Belum means not yet or event may happen in the future.
|Saya bukan James||I am not James|
|Kamu tidak suka jeruk||You do not like oranges|
|Jangan pergi!||Don't go!|
|Dia belum pergi||She has not gone yet|
More info about negation words "Tidak, bukan, jangan, belum": https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/31291121
Let’s step up the game. Welcome to Basics 2! Edit
You have learned some personal pronouns in Basics 1 (aku, kamu, dia), and you are going to find the rest of them here. There are some highlights that should be put as a reminder:
- Indonesian has formal and informal pronouns which you should pay attention the most when you are going to talk about “you” and “I” (Aww). Use “Anda” (You) and “Saya” (I) only in formal situation.
- Indonesian differentiates between singular “you” and plural “you”. The use of “Kamu”/”Anda” signalizes the person to be only one, whereas “Kalian” means there are multiple people.
- Indonesian has an inclusive and exclusive “we”. For example, if you (A) and your friend (B) are talking to someone (C), and the conversation goes like this:
A: “Kami makan ikan.” (We eat fish). This means that A and B ate fish, but C might or did not. But if it is like this: A: “Kita makan ikan.” (We eat fish). This means that all of them ate fish. The first example uses “Kami” which implies exclusivity, whereas the second example uses “Kita” to include C, which implies inclusiveness.
- Indonesian does not have non-personal subject pronouns, hence use “itu” (that) or “ini” (this) instead.
Here is the table to summarize the rules of pronoun uses:
|You (Plural)||Kalian||Formal & Informal|
|We (Inclusive)||Kita||Formal & Informal|
|We (Exclusive)||Kami||Formal & Informal|
|He/She||Dia||Formal & Informal|
|They||Mereka||Formal & Informal|
Additional info Edit
Please have a look here for more info : Click here: "ia" & "dia" , the differences : https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/28585404
Please have a look here for more info: 'ini' , 'itu', Tips & Notes, Addendum. https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/31492712
Kosakata (Vocabulary) : Edit
aku, kita, menulis, buku, surat, mereka, membaca, menu, koran, ini, anda, kami, kalian, besar, gaun, kaya, ia
Indonesian uses the word selamat to greet people. Selamat is actually derived from Arabic word salam which means peace. You just need to add selamat before the time or condition in greeting.
|Selamat pagi||Good morning|
|Selamat siang||Good afternoon|
|Selamat sore||Good afternoon|
|Selamat malam||Good evening|
|Selamat tidur||(lit. Good sleep) Good night|
|Selamat tinggal||(lit. Good leaving) Goodbye|
|Selamat datang||(lit. Good coming) Welcome|
Note that the concept of time of the day in Indonesian is slightly different from that in English, so use the greetings accordingly!
|Position of the sun||Time of the day|
|The sun is going up, from dawn to around 10am||Pagi|
|The sun is right up your head, from around 10am to 3pm||Siang|
|The sun is going down, from around 3pm to dusk||Sore|
|The sun is not visible in the sky||Malam|
Indonesian also uses Assalamu ’alaikum to greet someone and responds with Wa 'alaikumsalam as Islam majority country.
The word selamat is also used to congratulate other people.
|Selamat ulang tahun||Happy Birthday|
|Selamat Idul Fitri||Eid Mubarak|
|Selamat tahun baru||Happy New Year|
|Selamat natal||Merry Christmas|
Terima kasih Edit
Terima kasih means "thank you" is Indonesian phrase to express gratitude. If you want to express greater sense of gratitude, you can say terima kasih banyak.
In informal situations, you can just shorten terima kasih become makasih just like "thanks" in English.
Sama-sama or Terima kasih kembali is used to respond thanking, “You are welcome” in English.
Additional info Edit
Kosakata (Vocabulary) : Edit
tidak, ya, terima kasih, maaf, selamat pagi, silakan, sama-sama, sampai jumpa, selamat datang, selamat jalan, assalamualaikum, selamat siang, waalaikumsalam, selamat tinggal, permisi, selamat malam, terima kasih banyak, selamat sore, sampai jumpa lagi, salam, selamat idul fitri