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= All Duolingo Esperanto Course Notes =

External Resources Edit

Intros (Introducing Yourself) Edit

Tips and Notes Edit

As you learn Esperanto with this course, you are welcome to check the Tips and Notes for each Skill. They can help to answer any questions you may have.

Some simple Esperanto rules Edit

  • Each letter has a unique and separate sound. For example: longa is pronounced "lon-ga". Both k and n are pronounced in knabo.
  • The emphasis in every word is always on the next-to-last syllable. For example: all 2-syllable words have the emphasis on the first syllable, as in viro, and all 3-syllable words have the emphasis on the middle syllable, as in knabino.
  • All action words (verbs) always end in -as, when talking about what is happening now. Examples: mi laboras (I work/I am working); mi estas (I am); vi dormas (you sleep/you are sleeping).
  • All words for a thing (or a person, an animal, a place, etc), end in -o. For example: libro (a book), viro (a man), hundo (a dog), Aŭstralio (Australia).
  • "The" is la in Esperanto. For example: la viro = the man.
  • "A" and "an" are not used in Esperanto. For example: viro = a man.
  • -in means female: viro = man, virino = woman; knabo = boy, knabino = girl; aktoro = actor, aktorino = actress.

Esperanto alphabet Edit

The Esperanto alphabet has 28 letters. They include all the letters of the English alphabet, except for Q, W, X and Y. A few letters have accent marks.

If you are spelling an Esperanto word out loud, the name of each consonant is the sound that letter makes, followed by -o: B = bo, S = so etc. The name of each vowel is the sound that letter makes.

Here are approximate English equivalents for each vowel Edit

Esperanto

English equivalent

a ah
e eh
i ee
o oh
u oo

The letters C and J Edit

Esperanto

English equivalent

Esperanto example

c pets laca
j yet jes

Here are five of the accented letters Edit

Esperanto

English equivalent

Esperanto example

ĉ chair ĉu
ĝ large ĝi
ĵ leisure / French je aĵo
ŝ shoe ŝi
ŭ wet aŭ

Esperanto keyboard Edit

To obtain an Esperanto keyboard that will allow you to easily type these special characters, please refer to our forum by following the link below:

Esperanto keyboards: all systems go!

What if I don't want to install a keyboard just for this course? Edit

Duolingo recognizes the x-system, an alternative method of entering the accented Esperanto characters. To use the x-system, simply type the letter that requires the accent followed by an x:

X-System

Letter

cx ĉ
gx ĝ
hx ĥ
jx ĵ
sx ŝ
ux ŭ

Example: type sxangxo to spell ŝanĝo

Note that Duolingo will not convert accented characters entered via the x-system in the answer immediately when typed, but will recognize them when they are submitted for checking.

Phrases Edit

Many expressions end in -n. Edit

In Esperanto, greetings, thanks, congratulations and other similar expressions usually end in -n. The simple reason for this will be covered in a future skill (Accusative) that explains the -n word ending.

Question Words Edit

Kiu? means "which person or thing?". When used in relation to a person, it usually translates to "who?".

Kiel? means "in what manner?", "how?".

Esperanto Names Edit

People who speak Esperanto generally use their own names, but sometimes choose a name that is easier to pronounce in Esperanto, or an Esperanto nickname. Names for men in Esperanto generally end in -o, and nicknames in -ĉjo. A man named David could decide to use David, Davido, or the nickname Daĉjo. For a woman, Esperanto names can end in  -o or -a, and nicknames end in -njo. A woman named Susan could use Susan, Suzano, Suzana, or the nickname Sunjo.

Weather Edit

No "it" Edit

Note that the word "it" is not translated in the following expressions:

Pluvas. = (It) is raining.

Neĝas. = (It) is snowing.

Estas varma tago. = (It) is a warm day.

Ĉu Edit

Ĉu introduces a yes/no question. In contrast to English, it is not necessary to invert the subject and verb:

Statement Question
La vetero estas varma. Ĉu la vetero estas varma?
The weather is hot. Is the weather hot?

Questions in Esperanto must always be introduced by a question word such as ĉu, kiu (which), kiel (how) and other words that you will learn later. You cannot make a question simply by inverting the word order, or by adding a question mark.

Expressions with Ĉu Edit

Ĉu? = Really?
Ĉu ne? = Isn't it?
Vi laboras, ĉu ne? = You are working, aren't you?

Adjectives Edit

Adjectives are words like happy, good, or big, which modify a noun. Remember that a noun always ends in -o in Esperanto. Adjectives, on the other hand, end in -a:

varma = hot/warm, malvarma = cold

bona = good, malbona = bad

In Esperanto, the adjective may be placed either before or after the noun, with no change in meaning. "Bona tago" and "tago bona" both mean "a good day" and both are correct. In practice, most people prefer "bona tago", with the adjective before the noun.

Affixes Edit

mal- is a prefix that means "the opposite of". Please note that mal- by itself does not mean bad (as it does in some other languages):

varma = warm/hot; malvarma = cold

bela = beautiful; malbela = ugly

helpi = to help; malhelpi = to hinder

lumo = light; mallumo = darkness

bona = good; malbona = bad

Plurals Edit

Plurals Edit

In English, when there is more than one of something, we usually add -s to form the plural (more than one), for example dogs, houses, etc. But not always! There are some exceptions, like children, men, mice. In Esperanto, there are no exceptions. You always add -j to form the plural:

Esperanto English Esperanto Plural English
hundo a dog hundoj dogs
viro a man viroj men
tago a day tagoj days
knabino a girl knabinoj girls

In Esperanto the -j ending is also added to descriptive words (adjectives), such as bela (beautiful), and granda (big, large):

La viroj estas belaj. = The men are handsome.

La grandaj hundoj. = The big dogs.

La viro kaj la virino estas belaj. (because belaj refers to both la viro and la virino) = The man and the woman are beautiful.

Note that "la" stays the same in front of plural nouns, and no endings are ever added to "la".

Pronunciation Edit

-oj is pronounced like the English oy, and the pronunciation of -aj is like the English eye.

Numbers Edit

English Esperanto
one unu
two du
three tri
four kvar

Unlike adjectives and nouns, the cardinal numbers (one, two, three, etc.) do not take any endings:

Ni estas du virinoj. We are two women.

Affixes Edit

-ej is a suffix used to indicate a place:

kafo = coffee; kafejo = café (a place where you drink coffee, and other drinks.)
laboras = works; laborejo = workplace
loĝas = lives/inhabits; loĝejo = apartment (a place you inhabit)

Jen Edit

Jen means "here is" or "here are" like the following:

Jen la hundo. = Here is the dog.

Jen la hundoj. = Here are the dogs.

Although less common, jen may be followed by estas, for example:

Jen estas la hundo. = Here is the dog.

Jen estas la hundoj. = Here are the dogs.

Everyday Edit

Estas Edit

Estas means am, is, or are. It is the present tense of the verb esti, to be. It is used in sentences like La nokto estas varma. (The night is hot.) or Adamo estas viro. (Adam is a man.) to assign a property or identity to someone or something. It can also be used to state the existence of someone or something: Estas viro en la parko. (There is a man in the park.), or Estas nokto. (It is night.) From these examples we can see that when it is the first word in a sentence, Estas means "There is" or "It is":

Esperanto English
La nokto estas varma. The night is hot.
Estas viro en la parko. There is a man in the park.
Estas varma nokto. It is a hot night.

Note: Do NOT say "Ĝi estas varma nokto". Ĝi (it) is not needed in this sentence.

Adverbs Edit

Adverbs (usually -ly words in English) modify verbs and adjectives. In Esperanto they usually end in -e.

Examples:

rapide = quickly

malrapide = slowly

bone = well

Accusative Edit

The accusative ending: -n Edit

Take a look at this English sentence: "The woman kisses the little boy." How do you know who is kissing, and who is being kissed? In English, you know by the word order. The woman comes before the verb, so she is doing the kissing (or to use the grammatical term, she is the subject of the sentence). The little boy comes after the verb, so he's the one being kissed (and he is the grammatical object of the sentence).

In Esperanto, you can tell who is the subject and who is the object of the sentence by the endings. The subject of the sentence, i.e. the one who is doing the kissing, ends in -o . The object of the sentence, the one who is being kissed, has -n added after the -o. This means that you can always tell who or what is the subject, and who or what is the object, even if the sentence is switched around:

La virino kisas la malgrandan knabon.

The woman kisses the little boy.
La malgrandan knabon kisas la virino. <
The woman kisses the little boy.
(Look for the -n ! This still means "The woman kisses the little boy", even though the word order has been changed.)

Note that the adjective (in this case malgranda) also takes the -n ending, the same as the noun it refers to: malgrandan knabon .

These sentences mean the same thing, and are all equally correct. They all mean: "The woman kisses the small boy.":

La virino kisas la malgrandan knabon.

La malgrandan knabon kisas la virino.

Kisas la virino la malgrandan knabon.

Kisas la malgrandan knabon la virino.

La virino la malgrandan knabon kisas.

La malgrandan knabon la virino kisas.

The -n ending in Esperanto is called the accusative. Be aware that the accusative ending -n is never used with the verb estas: Li estas knabo. (He is a boy.)

Accusative and Plural Edit

If a word already ends in -j, the -n is added after it.

Mi manĝas bonajn kukojn.

I am eating good cakes.

Mi vidas la belajn virinojn.

I see the beautiful women.

Pronouns Edit

Pronouns also get the -n ending. Note how regularly Esperanto pronouns change as compared to their English counterparts:

Esperanto Subject Esperanto Object English Subject English Subject
mi min I me
vi vin you you
li lin he him
ŝi ŝin she her
ni nin we us
ili ilin they them

Why many expressions end in -n Edit

When you use an expression like “Thanks” in English, you are actually shortening a full statement. As you have just learned, -n indicates the object of the sentence as you can see in the examples below:

Dankon = Mi donas al vi dankon.

Thanks = I give you thanks. ("thanks" is the object of the sentence)

Saluton! = Mi donas al vi saluton.

Hi!/Hello!/Greetings! = I give you greetings. ("greetings" is the object)

Feliĉan novan jaron! = Mi deziras al vi feliĉan novan jaron!

Happy new year! = I wish you a happy new year! ("happy new year" is the object)

Prepositions Edit

The noun following a preposition normally takes a simple -o ending (-oj in the plural). Other endings will be explained later. For example:

La virino estas en la kafejo.

The woman is in the café.

Ni iras al la parko.

We go to the park.

Possessives Edit

Possessive pronouns Edit

Possessive personal pronouns (also known as possessive adjectives) are words like "my" and "your" in English. Unlike in English, these words are completely regular in Esperanto. Just add -a to the end of a pronoun to turn it into its possessive form.

English pronoun English possessive Esperanto pronoun Esperanto possessive
I my mi mia
you your vi via
he his li lia
she her ŝi ŝia
it its ĝi ĝia
we our ni nia
they their ili ilia

Like other words ending in -a the possessives also take the -j (plural) and -n (accusative) ending when required.

Jen miaj gepatroj.

Here are my parents.

Viaj ursoj trinkas mian bieron.

Your bears are drinking my beer.

De Edit

If you want to express that something belongs to someone, the key word is de. It corresponds to the English word "of", but it is also used when English would put 's on a word instead.

Jen mapo de la universitato.

Here is a map of the university.

Vi trinkas la bieron de mia patro.

You are drinking my father's beer. (the beer of my father)

Li estas la avo de Sofia.

He is Sofia's grandfather. (the grandfather of Sofia)

Kio, tio Edit

Kio = what? or what thing?.

Tio = that or that thing.

Kio and tio never take the ending -j (plural), but do take the ending -n (accusative) if they refer to a direct object.

Kio estas tio?

What is that?

Kion vi manĝas?

What are you eating?

Ni manĝas tion.

We are eating that.

Names and Addresses Edit

The following two ways (with kio or kiu) of asking for someone's name or address are equally correct:

Kio estas via [nomo/adreso]?

What is your [name/address]?

Kiu estas via [nomo/adreso]?

Which is your [name/address]?

Amiko, Amikino Edit

Traditionally, amiko was used only for a male friend, and amikino for a female friend, and this usage is still common, so we are teaching it here. Recently, however, many Esperanto speakers use the same form amiko for a male or female friend.

Also, note that amiko and amikino are not equivalent to the English "boyfriend" and "girlfriend". To describe a romantic relationship, we use the terms koramiko and koramikino ("heart-friend").

Languages Edit

Language names Edit

To name a language in Esperanto, the full expression is "la angla lingvo", "la franca lingvo" (the English language, the French language). However, people usually drop the word "lingvo" and just say "la angla" (English), "la franca" (French):

La itala estas bela lingvo.

Italian is a beautiful language.

Mi parolas la hispanan.

I speak Spanish.

Don't try this with Esperanto though! In theory you could say "la Esperanta lingvo", but in practice this form is never used. The language has always been known as Esperanto right from the start:

Oni Edit

Oni is equivalent to "one" in English. It is used frequently in Esperanto, more often than the pronoun "one" is used in English. It is used to make general statements, as follows:

Oni diras, ke la angla estas malfacila lingvo. One says that English is a difficult language.

People say that English is a difficult language.

Oni parolas Esperanton en la domo. One speaks Esperanto in the house.

Esperanto is spoken in the house.

Ke Edit

Subordinate clauses are often introduced by ke ("that"): Li diras, ke vi parolas Esperanton. In English, It is possible to leave out "that", and say "He says you speak Esperanto", instead of "He says that you speak Esperanto." However, in Esperanto ke must always be included. Note also that there is always a comma before ke, though the English translation may not have one.

Nek ... nek ... Edit

Nek means both "neither" and "nor":

Mi parolas nek la francan nek la anglan.

I speak neither French nor English.

Li parolas nek Esperanton, nek la anglan.

He speaks neither Esperanto nor English.

Nek ni nek ili loĝas en Aŭstralio.

Neither we nor they live in Australia.

Colors Edit

Ankaŭ Edit

Ankaŭ (also / too) is placed immediately before the word it refers to. It is never placed at the end of the phrase, as is common in English.

  • Ankaŭ mi ludas multe = I play a lot, too. (Interpretation: Others play a lot, and I, too, play a lot.)
  • Mi ankaŭ ludas multe = I play a lot, too. (There are other things that I do a lot, and I also play a lot.)

Esperanta Edit

The adjective form of Esperanto is Esperanta. This can either be capitalized or not based on the preference of the author. Any word can be turned into an adjective by changing the ending to -a.

Color Names Edit

Some colors have their own names: blua (blue), verda (green), bruna (brown). Others are based on the colors of specific fruit or flowers, and so have the suffix -kolora :

  • oranĝo (orange, the fruit) -> oranĝkolora (orange, the color)
  • rozo (rose, the flower) -> rozkolora (pink, the color).

In everyday use, these longer color names are often shortened: oranĝa, roza, viola.

Food 1 Edit

Infinitive Edit

The ending -i indicates the infinitive, for example ami (to love), trinki (to drink), kuiri (to cook). This is the neutral form found in a dictionary. It is often used to complement the verbs povas (can), volas (want), devas (must), and ŝatas (like). For example:

  • Mi volas danci. = I want to dance.
  • Mi ŝatas manĝi. = I like to eat.
  • Ĉu vi povas fari tion? = Can you do that?

Note that in English, the word "to" is not used after the words "can" and "must", but this is an oddity of English, not Esperanto!

Nek ... nek ... Edit

Nek means both "neither" and "nor". For example: Nek la fromaĝo nek la pomo estas flava.

Neither the cheese nor the apple is yellow.

Mi ŝatas nek la fromaĝon nek la pomon.

I like neither the cheese nor the apple.

Breakfast, Lunch & Dinner Edit

matenmanĝo = breakfast, the morning meal

tagmanĝo = lunch, the midday meal

vespermanĝo = dinner/supper, the evening meal.

Kun, Kune, Kune kun Edit

kun = with

kune = together

kune kun = together with

Pli and ol Edit

Pli ol means "more than". Pli and ol express a comparison:

Lia pomo estas pli granda ol mia pomo.

His apple is bigger than my apple.

Li kuiras pli bone ol mi.

He cooks better than I (do).

Ĉu Sofia estas pli bela ol ŝi?

Is Sofia prettier than she (is)?

Kiel Edit

Kiel means "as" in the following kinds of sentences. Remember to add the accusative -n when kiel comes between two words that both function as direct objects:

Ni manĝas fragojn kiel deserton.

We eat strawberries as (a) dessert.

Pro and Ĉar Edit

Pro and ĉar are similar, but are NOT interchangeable. Ĉar means because, while pro means because of, "due to", or "on account of":

Mi manĝas la fragojn, ĉar ili estas bongustaj.

I am eating the strawberries because they are tasty.

Pro mia granda apetito, mi manĝas du picojn.

Because of my big appetite, I am eating two pizzas.

Ĉar la vetero estas malbona, ni ne povas iri al restoracio.

Because the weather is bad, we can't go to a restaurant.

Pro la malbona vetero, ni ne povas iri al restoracio.

Because of the bad weather, we cannot go to the restaurant.

Countries Edit

Country names and nationalities Edit

Esperanto has a two-part system for naming countries and their inhabitants. This two-part system developed early in the history of Esperanto, and was based on the idea of a division of the world into "Old World" and "New World". The assumption was that the "Old World" countries took their names from the people who lived there. In contrast, "New World" countries consisted mainly of immigrants and their descendants, so their inhabitants were named after the countries they lived in. So, for some "Old World" countries, mainly in Europe and Asia, the Esperanto root form gives the name of the inhabitant, and the name of the country is formed from it. For other "New World" countries, mainly in the Americas, Africa and Oceania, the Esperanto root form gives the name of the country, and the name of the inhabitant is formed from it.

Group 1 (mainly "New World") Edit

The first group takes the name of the country as the root form (e.g. Brazil-o, Kanad-o) and an inhabitant of that country is formed by adding -an (member) in front of the ending -o. For example:

Brazilanoj loĝas en Brazilo.

Brazilians live in Brazil.

Kanadanoj loĝas en Kanado.

Canadians live in Canada.

Group 2 (mainly "Old World") Edit

The second group takes the name of the inhabitant as the root form (e.g. ital-o, german-o) and its country name is formed by adding -uj in front of the ending -o. For example:

Italoj loĝas en Italujo.

Italians live in Italy.

Germanoj loĝas en Germanujo. Germans live in Germany. Many people prefer to use the ending -io for Group 2 names rather than the traditional ending -ujo. This is how we teach country names here on Duolingo:

Traditional Alternative
Italujo Italio
Germanujo Germanio

About the Americas Edit

Usono refers to the USA, while Ameriko refers to the entire American continent; so usonano is a US citizen, while amerikano is someone from North, Central, or South America.

More accented letters Edit

The following table shows the rest of the accented letters, which are also called ĉapelitaj literoj (literally, "letters with hats").

Esperanto English equivalent Esperanto example
ĥ loch ĉeĥa (Czech)
ĵ pleasure ĵaŭdo (Thursday)
ŭ wet aŭ (or)

Note: ĥ is pronounced as a strongly aspirated "h", like the "ch" in the Scottish word "loch" (not pronounced "lock"), while ŭ is normally only used after a and e, in the combinations and .

Animals 1 Edit

The suffix -id (offspring) Edit

-id is a suffix that refers to the young of an animal, or more rarely, of a plant. kato (cat) + -id = katido (kitten)

hundo (dog) + -id = hundido (puppy)

Duo Edit

Duo is the name given by Duolingo to its mascot, the green owl. It is not the word for owl in Esperanto. The Esperanto word for owl is strigo.

The suffix -in (female) Edit

When it comes to animals, the root form of the animal (i.e. bovo) is gender neutral. Therefore the word bovo does not specify whether the animal is a bull or a cow. A bovino is specifically a cow. To make this unambiguously male, you need to add vir- in front of it, thus virbovo is a bull.

Esperanto English
bovo ox, bull, or cow
bovino cow (female)
virbovo bull (male)

Food 2 Edit

Kiom Edit

Kiom means "how much" or "how many." How much do you eat?

Kiom vi manĝas?

How much do you love me?

Kiom vi amas min?

How much is in the cup?

Kiom estas en la taso?

Kiom da Edit

When you ask "how much" or "how many" of a specific thing or things, the word "of" cannot be omitted as it is in English: How much (of) bread do you eat?

Kiom da pano vi manĝas?

How many (of) apples do you eat?

Kiom da pomoj vi manĝas?

How much (of) tea is in the cup?

Kiom da teo estas en la taso?

Kiom aĝas Edit

Kiom is used with age, since age is a quantity (of years). How old are you?

Kiom vi aĝas? (Literally: How much you are-age?)

Mi aĝas 30 jarojn. OR Mi estas 30-jaraĝa.

Kiom da jaroj vi havas?

(Literally "How many years do you have?")

Mi havas 30 jarojn.

Meat Dishes Edit

To talk about meat dishes, add -aĵ to the name of the animal that the dish is made from. For example, to talk about "pork" (meat from a pig), you use the word for pig (porko) and add the suffix -aĵ : porkaĵo. To say "I am eating pork", you would say Mi manĝas porkaĵon. The same sentence without -aĵ, Mi manĝas porkon would mean "I am eating a pig."

English Animal Esperanto Animal English Food Esperanto Food
a cow bovo beef bovo
a pig porko pork porko
a fish fiŝo fish fiŝo
a lamb ŝafido lamb ŝafido

Prepositions Edit

So far we have learned several prepositions, including sur, por, sen, de, da and kun. Note that there is no accusative -n for nouns after prepositions except in specific instances, which will be introduced later.

Mi aĉetas viandon por mia hundo.

Mi ŝatas kafon kun sukero.

Mi iras sen vi.

Subject or object after "ol" Edit

Ol (than), is a conjunction (a connecting word like "and") that functions as a comparison word. Either a subject or an object can follow it, just as in English: Ni amas ŝin pli ol ilin.

We love her more than [we love] them.

(The object ilin follows ol.)

Li amas la hundon pli ol ili amas ĝin.

He loves the dog more than they love it.

(The subject ili follows ol.)

Kun and Kune Edit

English Esperanto
with kun
together kune (adverbial form)
together with kune kun

Correlatives Edit

You may have noticed that all the question words start with ki-, except for ĉu. The letter or letters after ki- in the question word, i.e. the ending, indicates what kind of question it is.

English question in other words Esperanto question
what what thing kio
where what place kie
how what way kiel
who what specific person kiu
which what specific thing kiu
how much what quantity kiom

In this module we introduce the group of words ending in -om which relate to quantity.

English question in other words Esperanto question
how much [of it] what quantity kiom
that much [of it] that quantity tiom
some [of it] some quantity iom
all [of it] the whole quantity ĉiom
none [of it] no quantity neniom

All of these words in both tables are part of a group in Esperanto called "correlatives".

Uses of da and de after the -iom group of correlatives. Edit

Kiom, tiom, iom, and ĉiom are followed by da, when they refer to quantities that are indefinite: Kiom da akvo vi trinkas? How much water are you drinking?

Li manĝas iom da kuko.

He eats some cake.

When referring to amounts of a definite quantity (with la), we use de:

Mi manĝas iom de la granda kuko.

I am eating some of the big cake.

Kiom de la sandviĉo li manĝas?

How much of the sandwich is he eating?

Mi havas neniom. = I have none.

Clothing Edit

Pantalono Edit

Note that the word pantalono, which means "pants" (US) or "trousers" (UK) is singular in Esperanto. Thus pantalonoj refers to multiple pairs of pants.

Ŝtrumpo, ŝtrumpeto Edit

Esperanto English
ŝtrumpo stocking (up to the knee or higher)
ŝtrumpeto sock (up to the ankle or calf)

The suffix -et means "small", so a sock is a small stocking (ŝtrumpeto)!

Mojosa Edit

Mojosa (cool) is the most popular slang term in Esperanto. It originates from modern-jun-stila (modern-young-stylish). Reading out the first letter of each word gives Mo-Jo-So, which becomes mojoso (coolness). The adjective form is mojosa.


Questions Edit

Ĉu Edit

As covered in Basics 2, Ĉu is used to introduce a question. For example:

  • Ĉu vi volas danci? = Do you want to dance?
  • Ĉu vi amas ŝin aŭ min? = Do you love her or me?

In the middle of a sentence, ĉu means "whether". For example:

Ŝi demandas min, ĉu mi volas danci.

She asks me whether I want to dance.

(or: She asks me if I want to dance.)

Ŝi volas scii, ĉu mi parolas Esperanton.

She wants to know whether I speak Esperanto.

(or: She wants to know if I speak Esperanto.) Note that in English we often use the word "if" interchangeably with "whether", as in the examples above, but in Esperanto this is not correct. We can never use the word "se" (if) in place of the word ĉu.

Correlatives ending in -u Edit

The correlatives ending in -u (kiu, tiu, etc.) usually come before a noun. Notice how they take -j and -n endings just like adjectives. For example: Kiun libron vi legas?

Which book are you reading?

Mi volas legi tiujn librojn.

I want to read those books.

They appear without a noun only if the context makes what is being talked about clear. For example:

Jen kelkaj bonaj libroj. Kiun [libron] vi volas legi?

Here are some good books. Which [book] would you like to read?

Without other information, assume that kiu and tiu (and any other correlative ending in -u) refer to a person. For example: Kiu venas? = Who is coming?

Esperanto English
kio what
tio that
kiu which/who
tiu that one/that person

Kio estas tio? Tio estas libro.

What is that? That is a book.

Kiu estas via libro? Mia libro estas tiu.

Which is your book? My book is that one.

Kion vi volas? Mi volas tion.

What do you want? I want that.

Kiun vi volas? Mi volas tiun.

Which do you want? I want that one.

Kiujn vi volas? Mi volas tiujn.

Which ones do you want? I want those.

Kio or Kiu? Edit

Should it be Kio estas via nomo? OR Kiu estas via nomo? Both forms are correct, though with different shades of meaning. With Kiu the question actually means "Which is your name?" (that is, which one out of an imagined list of names is yours?) With Kio the question simply means "What is your name?". The same consideration applies to similar questions, such as Kio/Kiu estas via adreso? and Kio/Kiu estas la dato?

Ĉi Edit

Ĉi expresses close proximity when used immediately before or after ti- words. For example:

Esperanto English
tie there
ĉi tie here
tio that
ĉi tio this
tiu that thing/that person
ĉi tiu this thing/this person

Note: Since ĉi can go before or after ti- words, these are also valid: tie ĉi, tiu ĉi, tio ĉi.

Kien? Tien Edit

Adding -n to kie or tie shows movement towards a place. For example: Kie vi estas? Mi estas ĉi tie.

Where are you? I am here.

Kien vi iras? Mi iras tien.

To where are you going? I am going to there.

Note that the "to" is usually dropped in English, so this would be translated as "Where are you going? I am going there." Due to this lack of distinction in English, many English speakers have trouble remembering to add -n to tie and kie when talking about movement towards a place.

Kiam Edit

Kiam means "when".

Verbs Present Edit

Verb Types Edit

Transitive verbs Edit

Transitive verbs may take a direct object. For example:

Mi trinkas sukon. = I drink juice.

Ŝi legas libron. = She reads a book.

Sometimes, although the verb is transitive, the direct object is not expressed, so we may say Mi trinkas or Ŝi legas, without naming the thing that the person is drinking or reading.

Intransitive verbs Edit

Intransitive verbs never take a direct object. For example:

Mi sidas. = I am sitting.

La knabino kuras. = The girl is running.

Differences between Esperanto and English Edit

Please note that the rules concerning verbs and objects are stricter in Esperanto than in English.

In English, we know a lot of verbs that can be used both with and without a direct object. In English we can say "He closes the door" and "The door closes", using the same verb, although the meaning is different. In the first example, someone performs the action of closing the door, while in the second, the door becomes closed. In Esperanto, there are two words for this:

Li fermas la pordon. = He closes the door.

La pordo fermiĝas = The door closes.

In the same way, Esperanto distinguishes between komenci (to start to do something) and komenciĝi (to start happening):

La instruisto komencas la lecionon = The teacher starts the lesson.

La leciono komenciĝas. = The lesson is starting.

To use grammatical terms, fermi and komenci are transitive (take a direct object), while fermiĝi and komenciĝi are intransitive (cannot take a direct object).

Atendi Edit

Atendi can mean "to wait," "to wait for" or "to expect." For example: Mi atendas. = I wait.

Mi atendas buson. = I wait for a bus.

Mi atendas profiton. = I am expecting a profit.

Note: Kion vi atendas? can mean either "What are you expecting?" or "What are you waiting for?" depending on the context.

Tiel... kiel Edit

The combination tiel...kiel means as...as:

Ĉu vi kantas tiel bone kiel ŝi?

Do you sing as well as she (does)?

Ŝi estas tiel bela, kiel mia fratino.

She is as pretty as my sister.

Family Edit

Ge- Edit

Most words relating to the family are male by default. The suffix -in (female) and the prefix ge- (both genders) can be added to change the meaning. For example:

Gender Esperanto English
male patro father
female patrino mother
both gepatroj parents
Gender Esperanto English
male frato brother
female fratino sister
both gefratoj siblings
Gender Esperanto English
male avo grandfather
female avino grandmother
both geavoj grandparents

The prefix pra- means long ago, in the distant past :

Gender Esperanto English
male praavo great-grandfather
female praavino great-grandmother
both prageavoj great-grandparents

Note also:

prahistorio = prehistory

prahomo = ancient man

Amik(in)o, Koramik(in)o Edit

Note that amiko and amikino are not equivalent to the English "boyfriend" and "girlfriend". To describe a romantic relationship, we use the terms koramiko and koramikino ("heart-friend").

Sia Edit

The possessive pronoun sia means his own, her own, its own or their own. It always refers back to the subject. Li vidas sian hundon.

He sees his [own] dog.

Li vidas lian hundon.

He sees his [someone else's] dog.

Ili nun estas en sia hejmo.

They are now in their [own] home.

Ili nun estas en ilia hejmo.

They are now in their [their friends'] home.

Note that sia is not used when the subject of the concerned clause is mi, ni, or vi. In these cases use its standard possessive pronoun:

Vi havas vian hundon.

You have your [own] dog.

Kiel Edit

Kiel means "as" in the following kinds of sentences. Remember to add the accusative -n when kiel comes between two words that both function as direct objects:

Ŝi traktas lin kiel fraton.

She treats him like a brother.

Li amas sian nevinon kiel filinon.

He loves his niece like a daughter.

Kiom aĝas Edit

How old are you? Kiom vi aĝas?

(Literally: How much you are-age?)

Kiom is used with age, since age is a quantity (of years).

Note: An alternative way to ask someone's age is Kiom da jaroj vi havas? (Literally "How many years do you have?").

Objects Edit

Per Edit

Per means “by means of”, although the English translation may use “by” or “with”. Use this when mentioning tools or methods of transportation. For example:

  • per martelo – with a hammer
  • per tranĉilo – with a knife
  • per buso, per aŭto, per trajno, per ŝipo – by bus, by car, by train, by ship

Note that per is a preposition and so the following noun does not take the –n ending.

More examples:

Mi tranĉas la panon per tranĉilo.

I am cutting the bread with a knife.

Mi vojaĝis al Berlino per trajno.

I traveled to Berlin by train.

Peco da... Peco de... Edit

The word peco (piece) can be used with either da or de, creating slightly different meanings. With da we are emphasizing a quantity. With de we are emphasizing a quality: Tio estas granda peco da pano.

That is a big piece of bread.

(Answers the question : How much bread?)

Ĉu tio estas peco de pano aŭ peco de kuko?

Is that a piece of bread or a piece of cake?

(What kind of piece of food is that?)

Home 1 Edit

Prepositions Edit

The most literal sense of a preposition is generally the correct word to use in Esperanto. Thus, one rides "in the train," not "on the train." For example:

  • antaŭ can mean "in front of" or "before", depending on the context. In conjunction with time it can mean "ago".
  • kontraŭ means "against", but also "at the cost/price of";

and can be used in the context of taking a medicine in order to treat an illness ("against" an illness).

In general, nouns following a preposition do not take the -n ending.

Ĉe Edit

Ĉe is a versatile word that means "at", in the sense of at someone's home, or very close to something: *Ŝi sidas ĉe la tablo."

She is sitting at the table.

*Ili loĝas ĉe mi."

They live at my house. They live with me.

The directional -n Edit

In addition to its use for the direct object, the -n ending is also used to show direction:

  • Ŝi saltas sur la tablo. = She jumps (up and down) on the table.
  • Ŝi saltas sur la tablon. = She jumps onto the table (from another location).

Pro vs por Edit

  • Pro = because of, on account of
  • Por = for

Mi parolas Esperanton pro vi.

I speak Esperanto because of you. La donaco estas por vi.

The gift is for you.

Krom Edit

Krom can mean either "except (for)" or "in addition to" depending on the context. For example: Mi ŝatas ĉion, krom araneoj.

I like everything except spiders.

Krom araneoj, ŝi ankaŭ amas abelojn.

In addition to spiders, she also loves bees.

Manko de Edit

A lack of... Manko de...

A lack of something is not considered a quantity, so one says manko de and never manko da.

For example:

A lack of money

Manko de mono

Verŝi and ŝuti Edit

Verŝi means to pour a liquid such as water or oil, while ŝuti means to pour a non-liquid such as sand or sugar.

Tero and tero Edit

Tero is the word for the planet Earth. We omit the article la when we speak of it in that context: Tero moviĝas ĉirkaŭ la suno. (The) Earth moves around the sun.

La Tero is the term for the Earth we live on:

Kie ni vivos, kiam la Tero estos tro varma?

Where will we live, when the Earth is too hot?

For earth or soil that plants grow in, we use tero without capitalization:

En la tero kreskas plantoj.

Plants grow in the earth.

Verbs: Past & Future Edit

Verbs: Past & Future Edit

The following endings change the tense of a verb: -is = past -os = future

Past Present Future
La kato dormis. La kato dormas. La kato dormos.
The cat slept. The cat sleeps. The cat will sleep.

There are no exceptions to this rule!

Note: In English, sometimes part of a sentence is expressed in the present tense, even though the event actually takes place in the future. In Esperanto, both parts of the sentence are in the future tense, since they happen then. For example:

Kion vi faros, kiam vi estos gepatroj?

What will you do when you are parents?

Ni iros al la drinkejo ĉi-vespere.

We are going to the bar tonight.

Post kiam/Antaŭ ol Edit

The preposition post means "after" and is usually followed by a noun: post la matenmanĝo

after breakfast

post la oka horo

after eight o'clock

However, if you want to use post with a verb phrase, you have to use post kiam:

Post kiam ni matenmanĝis...

After we [had] had breakfast...

Post kiam mi laboris, mi dormis.

After I [had] worked, I slept.

In the same way, antaŭ ("before" or "in front of") is usually followed by a noun, while antaŭ ol (before) needs to be used before verbs or verb phrases.

Ŝi staras antaŭ la pordo.

She is standing in front of the door.

Sofia alvenis antaŭ la manĝo. Sofia arrived before the meal.

Ni manĝis antaŭ ol li alvenis.

We ate before he arrived.

Numbers Edit

The past tense -is ending. Edit

For the past tense, use -is:

La arbo falas.

The tree is falling.

La arbo falis.

The tree fell.

Cardinal/Ordinal Numbers Edit

Cardinal numbers such as one, two and three never take any endings in Esperanto. Ordinal numbers such as first, second and third end in -a and are adjectives, so they must agree with the nouns they describe: la unua tago (the first day); la unuaj tagoj (the first days).

Cardinal Esperanto Ordinal Esperanto
one unu first unua
two du second dua
three tri third tria
four kvar fourth kvara

Writing out numbers Edit

Numbers Esperanto How many words?
11, 12 ... 19 dek unu, dek du ... dek naŭ two words
20, 30 ... 90 dudek, tridek ... naŭdek one word
200, 300 ... 900 ducent, tricent ... naŭcent one word
2000, 3000 ... 9000 du mil, tri mil ... naŭ mil two words

Du mil okdek kvar: Two thousand eighty-four (2084)

Kvincent sesdek tri mil: Five hundred sixty-three thousand (563 000)

Note (from Tree 1.0): For ordinal numbers, use hyphens between all the words in the number: ducent-okdek-sepa. We do this because the adjective ending -a relates to the entire number (287), not just to the 7 at the end.

La du-mil-okcent-kvara tago: The two thousand eighty-fourth day

A million and beyond Edit

English Esperanto
million miliono
billion miliardo

Note (from Tree 1.0): It is advisable to avoid using the ambiguous word biliono, since this can either mean a billion or a trillion. In English also, these words can have different meanings, depending on the country where they are used.

Nombro vs Numero Edit

Esperanto distinguishes between nombro and numero although both are translated as “number” in English.

Nombro Edit

Nombro is a number that signifies an amount or is used to express a mathematical relationship. For example:

la nombro de personoj

the number of people

4 estas pli granda nombro ol 3.

4 is a larger number than 3.

Numero Edit

Numero is a number used for labelling items in a series:

la numero de la domo

the house number

telefonnumero

phone number

la lasta numero de la gazeto

the last number [edition] of the newspaper.

Zero Edit

The word for the number zero in Esperanto is nul or nulo.

Dates Edit

Special conventions to express time Edit

Esperanto English
dimanĉo Sunday
dimanĉon on Sunday (next Sunday; last Sunday)
dimanĉe on Sundays, every Sunday.

The -n ending refers to a specific occasion, while the -e ending usually describes a recurring event. However, not all Esperanto speakers make this distinction. Some people use the -e ending both for specific and recurring events, so dimanĉe may mean "on (a specific) Sunday" as well "on Sundays".

  • Mi alvenos sabaton.

I will arrive (on) Saturday.

  • Ni venos la dek-kvinan de oktobro.

We will come (on) the 15th of October.

  • La renkontiĝo okazas sabate.

The meeting happens on Saturdays / every Saturday.

  • La renkontiĝo okazos sabate.

The meeting will take place on Saturdays. The meeting will take place on Saturday (this Saturday).

The -n ending is also used to express duration:

  • Mi restis unu horon (dum unu horo).

I stayed for one hour.

  • Li vojaĝos la tutan tagon (dum la tuta tago).

He will travel all day (the whole day).

Spelling Conventions for Months and Days of the Week Edit

Upper Case or Lower Case? Months can either start with a lower case or capital letter: januaro, februaro; Januaro, Februaro. In this course, we have chosen to present the lowercase form. Days of the week are always in lower case: lundo, mardo.

The 24-hour clock Edit

In many countries, a 24-hour clock is often used. In that system, all times after 12 noon are formed by adding 12 to the clock time, so "am" and "pm" are not needed:

12-hour clock system 24-hour clock system
11:00 am 11:00
1:30 pm 13:30
11:00 pm 23:00
12 midnight 24:00

How to write longer ordinal numbers Edit

For multi-word ordinal numbers, use hyphens between all the words in the number: ducent-okdek-sepa. We do this because the adjective ending -a relates to the entire number (287), not just to the 7 at the end. La du-mil-okdek-kvara tago

The two thousand eighty-fourth day

It is also possible to write this as a single word, la dumilokdekkvara tago, but the hyphens make it easier to read.

Komenci, komenciĝi: what is the difference? Edit

Komenci means to start or begin something, and takes a direct object with an -n ending:

  • Mi komencas la manĝon.
    I am starting/beginning the meal.

Komenciĝi includes the -iĝ affix and means to begin or start on its own. It does not take a direct object:

  • La manĝo komenciĝas.
    The meal is starting/beginning.

A more detailed explanation can be found in the notes for the module Verbs Present. You will learn more about the -iĝ affix in a module dedicated to both the -iĝ and the -ig affix.

Occupations Edit

Gender markers related to professions: Edit

As mentioned in the Family lesson notes, nouns not relating to family have no base gender:

aktoro : a male or female actor

dentisto : a male or female dentist

In these cases, you may choose to explicitly make a noun feminine by adding -in :

aktorino = a female actor

dentistino = a female dentist

Be aware that in some Esperanto settings, when you use a term like aktoro or dancisto, people may assume that you are talking about a man. In this course, we will not routinely present the feminine form of professions. However your responses using the feminine form when appropriate will be accepted as correct.

Studento and Lernanto Edit

Studento - a student enrolled in a college or university.

Lernanto - a learner, or anyone who is learning; a school pupil.

Fariĝi Edit

Fariĝi means "to become."

Ŝia filo fariĝis kuracisto.

Her son became a doctor.

Note that ŝia filo is the subject of the sentence, so of course it does not take the accusative -n ending. But why does kuracisto also not take the -n ending? Remember that the accusative -n is used when the subject is in some way acting on the object of the sentence. But in this sentence, the son is not acting on a doctor, he is becoming a doctor himself.

We will learn more about the -iĝ affix in later lessons.

Ŝajnas, ke ... Edit

Ŝajnas, ke ... means "It seems, that ..."

Imperative and Volitive Edit

Imperative: the -u ending. Edit

The -u ending is used when ordering / inviting someone else to do something -- or when telling or suggesting to ourselves what to do!

Esperanto English
Manĝu! Eat!
Iru! Go!
Ni iru! Let's go!
Ni vidu! Let's see!
Mi pensu! Let me think!

Imperative + Infinitive Edit

An imperative may be followed by an infinitive: Bonvolu manĝi!

Please eat!

(NOT: Bonvolu manĝu. Do not use two imperatives one after the other in that way).

Questions with -u Edit

In questions, the -u ending can be translated as "shall" or "should":

Ĉu ni iru?

Shall we go?

Should we go?

Ĉu mi legu tiun libron?

Shall I read that book?

Should I read that book?

The -u ending in subordinate phrases Edit

We also use the -u ending in subordinate phrases (clauses) starting with ke, when the verb in the preceding, main part of the sentence expresses a want, desire, demand or preference:

Esperanto English
Mi volas, ke vi iru. I want you to go.
Li preferas, ke mi ne donu al vi monon. He prefers that I do not give you money.
Ŝi postulas, ke la infanoj studu. She insists that the children study.

Informo and Informoj Edit

In English the word "information" is always singular, but in Esperanto you will often find it in the plural.

Affixes Edit

Affixes Edit

One of the greatest advantages of Esperanto is its flexible system of word particles that can be attached either in front of a word (prefixes) or at the end of a word (suffixes). There are 10 prefixes and 31 suffixes, which can be used to modify any word, as long as the result makes sense. When you finish the Affixes 3 module, you will know all of them! In this lesson, you'll review one prefix (mal-) and learn many suffixes:

Affix Definition Example Translation
mal- opposite malfacila difficult
-eg big bonega excellent
-et little dormeti to nap
-uj container sapujo soapbox
-ej place lernejo school
-ul person riĉulo rich person
-il tool fotilo camera
-ebl possible komprenebla understandable
-estr leader laborestro boss
-an member klubano club member
-ar group arbaro forest

See how these affixes affect the word varma:

Esperanto English
varma hot
varmega very hot
varmeta warm
malvarma cold
malvarmega ice cold
malvarmeta cool

Affixes as roots Edit

Note that even though affixes in Esperanto are usually attached to a root word, they can also be used as roots themselves, for example:

Esperanto

English

la ejo the place
tiuj iloj those tools
la mala direkto the opposite direction
la etulo the little person
ĉu eblas? is it possible?

Adjectives Edit

Adjectives Edit

An adjective takes the -a ending and has to agree in number with the noun it modifies:

  • bona homo = a good person
  • bonaj homoj = good people
  • Homoj estas bonaj. = People are good.

An adjective that modifies an object also takes the -n (direct object) ending:

Mi manĝas belajn kukojn. = I eat beautiful cakes.

In summary, an adjective's ending must match the ending of the noun it modifies.

Word Order Edit

Word order in Esperanto can be flexible. Adjectives usually go before the noun, but they may sometimes be placed after the noun for special emphasis. Both of the following sentences are correct:

Ŝi estas bona instruisto.

Ŝi estas instruisto bona.

She is a good teacher.

Adjectives into verbs Edit

In Esperanto, many (but not all) adjectives can be transformed into verbs, and are often used that way in conversations and in written texts. Here are a few of the adjectives that are frequently used in their verb forms: Mi estas preta. = Mi pretas. = I am ready.

Li estas malsana. = Li malsanas. = He is sick.

Ŝi estas feliĉa. = Ŝi feliĉas. = She is happy.

Ni estas fieraj. = Ni fieras. = We are proud.

Ili estas lacaj. = Ili lacas. = They are tired.

Mal- Edit

The prefix mal- simply means “opposite”. It does not mean “bad” as in some romance languages.

granda = big, large

malgranda = small, little

fermi = to close

malfermi = to open

Paired conjunctions: Edit

Esperanto English
kaj....kaj.... both....and.....
nek....nek.... neither....nor.....
aŭ....aŭ.... either....or.....

Correlatives with -ia Edit

Correlatives ending in -ia refer to a kind, sort, or type of something. They are adjectives and take the -j and -n endings where needed:

Kiajn librojn vi ŝatas legi?

What kinds of books do you like to read?

Esperanto

English

kia(j)(n) what kind(s) of
tia(j)(n) that/those kind(s) of
ia(j)(n) some kind(s) of
ĉia(j)(n) every kind of/all kinds of
nenia(n) no kind of

Directions Edit

The -n ending and quantities, prices, distances, measurements, duration. Edit

Besides being used to indicate a direct object, the accusative ending -n is used to indicate quantities, measurements, prices, distances, duration etc.: Li pezas cent tri kilogramojn.

He weighs 103 kg.

Ĉu vi povas kuri kvindek kilometrojn?

Can you run 50 km?

Ili marŝis dudek kilometrojn.

They walked twenty kilometers.

La monto estas mil metrojn alta.

The mountain is 1000 m. high.

La ŝtofo estas du metrojn longa.

The fabric is two meters long.

La fadeno estas dudek centimetrojn.

The thread is 20 cm. long.

Ŝi restis ĉe ni ses semajnojn.

She stayed with us (for) six weeks.

La libro kostas naŭ dolarojn.

The book costs nine dollars.

La domo kostas tricent mil eŭrojn.

The house costs three hundred thousand euros.

La muzeo estas du kilometrojn for de mia hejmo.

The museum is 2 km. away from my home.

Sometimes instead of the accusative you can use a preposition such as dum (while) or je (indefinite meaning). After these prepositions the accusative is not needed:

Ŝi restis ĉe ni dum ses semajnoj. She stayed with us for (during) six weeks.

La monto estas alta je mil metroj.

The mountain is 1000 meters high.

La muzeo estas for de mia hejmo je du kilometroj.

The museum is 2 km. away from my home.

Weights and Measures Edit

English speakers are used to using non-metric weights and measures such as pounds and miles, but for speakers of other languages these quantities may be highly mysterious. For this reason, when speaking in Esperanto to non-English speakers it is best to use the metric system. The words for pounds, ounces, miles etc. do exist in Esperanto, but we do not teach them in this course. For the record, they are as follows, with approximate metric equivalents:

Esperanto English Metric equivalent
funto pound approx. ½ kg
unco ounce 28 gm
mejlo mile approx. 1½ km
futo foot approx. 30 cm
colo inch approx. 2½ c

The words for “gallon”, “pint” and “yard” are barely used or known in Esperanto. A yard is almost the same as a meter, so use the word metro instead, and for liquid measurements use litro (liter).

Shopping Edit

Vendejo and butiko Edit

Vendejo is a more general term than butiko as it can mean any place where anything is sold, including a wholesale warehouse. Butiko refers to a retail store. However they are often used interchangeably when referring to retail locations.

Time Edit

Post kiam/Antaŭ ol Edit

The preposition post means "after" and is usually followed by a noun: post la matenmanĝo

after breakfast

post la oka horo

after eight o'clock

However, if you want to use post with a verb phrase, you have to use post kiam:

Post kiam ni matenmanĝis...

After we [had] had breakfast...

Post kiam mi laboris, mi dormis.

After I [had] worked, I slept.

In the same way, antaŭ ol needs to be used before verbs.

Ni manĝis, antaŭ ol li alvenis.

We ate before he arrived.

Fractions Edit

Fractions are made by adding the suffix -on to the base number. Fractions can be nouns (-o) or adjectives (-a) just like any other word in Esperanto. For example:

Fraction Esperanto
a half duono
a third triono
two thirds du trionoj

duona tago / duontago

a half day

Komenci, komenciĝi: what is the difference? Edit

Komenci means to start or begin something, and takes a direct object with an -n ending:

  • Mi komencas la manĝon. = I am starting/beginning the meal.

Komenciĝi includes the -iĝ affix and means to begin or start on its own. It does not take a direct object:

  • La manĝo komenciĝas. = The meal is starting/beginning.

A more detailed explanation can be found in the notes for the module Verbs Present. You will learn more about the -iĝ affix in a module dedicated to both the -iĝ and the -ig affix.

Correlatives (tabelvortoj) Edit

All the question words we have learned so far start with ki-, which has the general meaning of "what":

Esperanto English
kiam at what time, when
kio what
kie at what place, where
kiel in what way, how
kiu what specific person or thing, who or which
kiom what amount, how much

Similar words starting with ti- (general meaning of "that") are related to the question words:

Esperanto English
tiam at that time, then
tio that thing
tie that place, there
tiel in that way
tiu that person or specific thing
tiom that quantity, that much

And words starting with ĉi- (general meaning of "all") are also related:

Esperanto English
ĉiam at all times, always
ĉio everything
ĉie in all places, every place, everywhere
ĉiom all of it, the whole amount

All of these words (and more that we will learn as the course progresses) are part of a group of words in Esperanto called Correlatives (Eo: korelativoj). In Esperanto they are also called tabelvortoj because they can easily be arranged in one big table / chart. In this module we learn iam (at any time, sometimes, ever) and neniam (at no time, never) to round out the words ending with -am that relate to time.

Esperanto English English paraphrase
kiam when at what time
tiam then at that time
iam sometime at some/any time
ĉiam always at all times
neniam never at no time

Finally, here's an overview of all the correlatives that you have learned so far:

_

-U

-O

-E

-EL

-AM

-OM

KI- kiu kio kie kiel kiam kiom
TI- tiu tio tie tiel tiam tiom
I- iam iom
ĈI- ĉio ĉie ĉiam ĉiom
NENI- neniam neniom

Home 2 Edit

Compound Words Edit

Combining two words to make a new word is very common in Esperanto. The vowel ending of the first word may be dropped, or it may be retained if that makes the word easier to pronounce:

Eo En
lito + tuko = litotuko (or: littuko) bed + cloth = sheet
vesto + ŝranko = vestoŝranko garment + cabinet/cupboard = clothes closet
lito + kovrilo = litkovrilo (or: litokovrilo) bed + cover = bedspread
bano + tuko = bantuko bath + cloth = towel

Also note that a hyphen may be added:

Esperanto + klubo = Esperantoklubo or Esperanto-klubo.

Purigi Edit

Pur-ig-i means to clean (to make something clean), and comes from the adjective pura (clean). We will learn more about the affix -ig in future modules.

Manĝilaro Edit

This is an example of a word with two affixes, and illustrates how easy and straightforward it is to build words in Esperanto:

Manĝ + -il + -aro =manĝilaro

Eat + tool + group = silverware

Loĝi and Vivi Edit

Esperanto English
loĝi to live, to reside, to dwell (in a specific place)
vivi to live, to be alive (the state of being)

English speakers usually use the verb “to live” for both meanings. However you should aim to make the distinction and use loĝi and vivi correctly in Esperanto, so that you will be reliably understood.

Mem Edit

Mem means [my,your,his,her]-self, or [our, them]-selves.

It is used for emphasis:

Esperanto

English

mi mem I myself
vi mem you yourself, you yourselves
li mem he himself
ŝi mem she herself
ni mem we ourselves
ili mem they themselves

Internet Edit

The Conditional Edit

Use the verb ending -us to talk about non-real, imagined situations, or to make polite requests.

Non-real situations Edit

Non-real situations are the topic of "if...then" sentences, like this one:

  • Se mi estus sana, mi laborus.
    If I were healthy, I would work.

Notice that Esperanto, unlike English, uses the -us form in both parts of the sentence - since both parts are non-real.

We also talk about non-real situations when we express our wish for something to be different from what/how it actually is:

  • Se li nur estus iom pli bela!
    If only he were a bit more handsome!

The -us ending does not carry any temporal information. Thus, it is possible to use the -us ending for events in the past as well. When doing so, context usually indicates that we are talking about the past:

  • Se Zamenhof scius la ĉinan, Esperanto estus malsama.
     

If Zamenhof had known Chinese, Esperanto would be different.

  • Se vi dirus tion al mi jam hieraŭ, mi ne farus la eraron.
     

If you had told me this already yesterday, I would not have made the mistake.

Polite requests Edit

The -us form can also be used to express polite requests.

  • Ĉu vi volus iri al la kinejo kun mi?
     

Would you like to go to the movies with me?

  • Mi ŝatus iom pli da sukero.
     

I would like a little more sugar.

Review of -n for direction Edit

Remember to use the -n ending when talking about a movement towards a certain place. For example

  • Metu la dosierojn en dosierujon!
     

Put the files into a folder!

Retpoŝto vs. retmesaĝo Edit

Retpoŝto means email in general; the service that allows you to send and receive electronic messages. A message sent by retpoŝto (email) is called retmesaĝo (an email).

Adverbs Edit

Adverbs : the -e ending Edit

Adverbs typically end in -e. An adverb describes or modifies a verb. We have already seen several examples of adverbs:

Esperanto English
bone well
nokte nightly, at night
multe a lot
rapide rapidly, quickly, fast
malrapide slowly
kune along with
ofte often

Adverbs can modify adjectives Edit

Tio estas vere bela : That is truly beautiful.

Adverb after Estas Edit

After estas, when there is no subject of the sentence, use an adverb, not an adjective.

Esperanto

English

Hodiaŭ estas varme, kaj la suno brilas. Today it is warm, and the sun is shining.
Estas bone, ke vi jam finis la lecionon. It is good that you have already finished the lesson.

Arts Edit

Color Names Edit

Some colors have their own names: blua (blue), verda (green), bruna (brown). Others are based on the colors of specific fruit or flowers, and require the suffix -kolora :

  • oranĝo (orange, the fruit) -> oranĝkolora (orange, the color)
  • rozo (rose, the flower) -> rozkolora (pink, the color).

In everyday use, these longer color names are often shortened: oranĝa, roza, viola.

Poezio, Poemo Edit

Poetry has been a very important part of the Esperanto literary tradition from the beginning. The following terms are the most commonly used:

Esperanto English
poezio poetry
poemo poem
poeto poet

Some Esperanto speakers use poemo to refer mainly to longer poems; those speakers use poeziaĵo or versaĵo to describe shorter poems.

Feelings Edit

Tiel...kiel Edit

Tiel...kiel is a way of expressing a comparison:

Esperanto English
Li estas tiel laca kiel mi. He is as tired as I (am).
Ŝi estas tiel kontenta kiel ili. She is as content as they (are).

Reflexive verb: senti Edit

Please note that senti [to feel] in Esperanto is reflexive. For example:

  • Mi sentas min feliĉa. = I feel happy.
  • Kia vi sentas vin? = How do you feel?

Places Edit

The -n ending for direction Edit

The -n ending is used to show direction, when describing movement toward something or some place. However, it is not used after the prepositions ĝis, al or el, as they already show direction:

Esperanto English
Ni vojaĝu norden al Kanado! Let's travel north to Canada!
Mi iras ien, sed kien? I am going somewhere, but where?
La birdo flugis en la arbon. The bird flew into the tree.
Ni iru al Londono! Let's go to London!
Mi kuris de la lago al la montoj. I ran from the lake to the mountains.
Mia filino marŝis ĝis la fino de la strato. My daughter walked to the end of the street.

Eniri, eliri Edit

Eniri and eliri are good examples of a common way to build new verbs in Esperanto: combine a preposition with an existing verb:

Esperanto English
en + iri = eniri into + to go = to enter
el + iri = eliri out of/from + to go = to exit

Ajn Edit

Ajn means any or ever, and may be combined with various ki- and i- correlatives, usually for emphasis:

Esperanto English
Mi volas iri ien. I want to go somewhere.
Mi volas iri ien ajn. I want to go anywhere at all.
Kien vi iros, mi iros. Where you go, I will go.
Kien ajn vi iros, mi iros. Wherever you go, I will go.

Troviĝi Edit

Troviĝi means to be found or located. It comes from the verb trovi, to find. Because it contains the -iĝ affix, it is intransitive and does not take an object: Ilia domo troviĝas en bela kvartalo.

Their house is located in a beautiful neighborhood.

Correlatives with -ie and -ien Edit

Here is a chart which lists all the correlatives ending in -ie and -ien:

Eo

English

Eo

English

kie where, what place kien (to) where
tie there, that place tien (to) there
ie somewhere, some place ien (to) somewhere
ĉie everywhere, all places ĉien (to) everywhere
nenie nowhere, no place nenien (to) nowhere

People Edit

Correlatives with -u Edit

-u words relate to a particular person or thing.

Esperanto English
kiu who; which
tiu that (particular) person or thing
iu someone, somebody; some particular thing
ĉiu every person or every particular thing
neniu no one, nobody; no particular thing

Correlatives with -es Edit

-es words relate to possessing something.

Esperanto English
kies whose
ties that person's
ies someone's
ĉies everyone's
nenies no one's

Ties does not have a one word translation in English and means "that person's" or " that one's". It can be used to clarify a sentence that might be ambiguous in English. "He went to a restaurant with his cousin and his wife." Whose wife was it, the cousin's or his own?

  • Li iris al la restoracio kun sia kuzo kaj <em>sia</em> edzino = He went to the restaurant with his cousin and his own wife.
  • Li iris al la restoracio kun sia kuzo kaj <em>ties</em> edzino. = He went to the restaurant with his cousin and his cousin's wife.

Correlatives (tabelvortoj) summary: Edit

In English, many question words begin with wh-: what, where, why, who, which, when. In Esperanto, question words of this type always begin with ki-.

Esperanto English
kia what kind of
kial why
kiam at what time, when
kio what
kie at what place, where
kiel in what way, how
kiu what specific person or thing, who or which
kiom what amount, how much
kies whose

Similar words starting with ti- (general meaning of "that") are related to the question words:

Esperanto English
tia that kind of
tial that's why
tiam at that time, then
tio that thing
tie that place, there
tiel in that way
tiu that person or specific thing
tiom that quantity, that much
ties that one's

Similar words starting with i- (general meaning of some) are related too:

Esperanto English
ia some kind of
ial for some reason
iam sometimes
io something
ie somewhere
iel in some way
iu someone, somebody
iom some of it
ies someone's, somebody's

And similar words starting with ĉi- (general meaning of "all") are also related:

Esperanto English
ĉia every kind of
ĉial for every reason
ĉiam at all times, always
ĉio everything
ĉie in all places, every place, everywhere
ĉiel in every way
ĉiu everyone, everybody
ĉiom all of it, the whole amount
ĉies everyone's, everybody's

And words starting with neni- (general meaning of "none") are also related:

Esperanto English
nenia no kind of
nenial not for any reason
neniam never
nenio nothing
nenie nowhere
neniel in no way
neniu noone, nobody
neniom none of it
nenies noone's, nobody's

All of these words are part of a group of words in Esperanto called Correlatives (Eo: korelativoj). In Esperanto they are also called tabelvortoj because they can easily be arranged in one big table / chart.

Verbs: -ig/-iĝ Edit

-ig and -iĝ Edit

The -ig and -iĝ suffixes express a change of state. -ig means to cause a change, while -iĝ means to experience a change, or change from one state to another:

Esperanto English
ruĝa red
ruĝigi to make something red
ruĝi to become red, to blush
bela beautiful
beligi to make something beautiful
beli to become beautiful

The above example show how the -ig and -iĝ suffixes can be used with adjectives. They can also be used with verbs:

Esperanto English
manĝi to eat
manĝigi to make someone eat, to feed
morti to die
mortigi to make someone die, to kill
levi to lift, to raise
levi to rise
veki to wake someone up
veki to wake up

As you can see in the examples above, verbs ending in -ig always require an object, while those ending in -iĝ never do. In grammatical terns, the -ig verbs are transitive, while the -iĝ verbs are intransitive. Many verbs in English can be both transitive and intransitive, but this is not possible in Esperanto, in which verbs are normally either transitive or intransitive, but not both. In English, we can say "The girl closed the window" and "The window closed" using the same verb, even thought the meaning is slightly different: in the first sentence the girl is acting on the window, while in the second the window became closed by itself. Examples of English words that can be both transitive and intransitive include "to open", "to close", "to start", "to finish", "to change" and "to move". These verbs in Esperanto-- malfermi, fermi, komenci, fini, ŝangi, movi--are all transitive, and to make them intransitive you must add the suffix -iĝ:

English Transitive Intransitive
to close fermi fermi
to open malfermi malfermi
to start, begin komenci komenci
to finish, end fini fini
to change ŝanĝi ŝanĝi
to move movi movi

Here are some example sentences using words from the two charts above:

Esperanto English
Ŝi ruĝiĝis. She blushed.
Ŝi beligis mian vivon. She made my life beautiful.
Ĉu vi manĝigis la infanojn? Did you feed the children?
La suno leviĝas. The sun is rising.
Mia hundo provas veki min, sed mi ne volas vekiĝi My dog is trying to wake me up, but I don't want to wake up.
La knabo fermis la fenestron. The boy closed the window.
La fenestro fermiĝis. The window closed (by itself).
La studentoj komencis la lecionon. The students started (doing) the lesson.
La leciono komenciĝas je la naŭa. The lesson starts at 9 (o'clock).

It is also possible to add the -iĝ ending to intransitive verbs like sidi (to sit, be sitting) and kuŝi (to lie, be lying down). In this setting the addition of -iĝ indicates a change of position to achieve a new state:

  • Li sidis sur la sofo.
    He sat down on the sofa. (He "became sitting" on the sofa.)
     
  • La hundo kuŝis sur la planko.
    The dog lay down on the floor. (The dog "became lying" on the floor.)

Abstract Verbs Edit

Flexible word types Edit

In Esperanto, just changing the word ending can turn it into a different part of speech, for instance from a verb into a noun or adjective, or from an adjective to a verb. For example: alveni (to arrive) --> la alveno (the arrival)

ekzisti (to exist) -- > la ekzisto (the existence)

pensi (to think) --> la penso (the thought)

pluvi (to rain) --> pluva (rainy)

bela (beautiful) --> belas (is/are beautiful)

laca (tired) --> lacas (is/are tired)

hundo (a dog) -- > hunda (canine)

Esperanto is a very flexible language. Many speakers like to take advantage of this flexibility to make use of more adventurous constructions. For instance, instead of La urso estas granda (The bear is big), they might say: La urso grandas, changing estas granda into the verb grandas.

It is almost always possible to convert adjectives into verbs, for whatever word you are using. Try it, it's fun!

Pezi and Pesi Edit

Pezi means to be of a certain weight: Ŝi pezas 60 kilogramojn. She weighs 60 kilograms.

Pesi means to weigh something else: Ŝi pesis la fiŝon.

She weighed the fish.

To weigh (pesi) something, of course you need a pesilo (scale)!

Health 1 Edit

Rompi and rompiĝi, okupi and okupiĝi Edit

We have already encountered the intransitive -iĝ affix when learning fariĝi and komenciĝi. Similarly,rompi means to break something, while rompiĝi means to become or get broken. And okupi means to occupy something, while okupiĝi means to become occupied.

Esperanto English Esperanto English
fari to do or make fariĝi to become
komenci to start something komenciĝi to begin
rompi to break something rompiĝi to get broken
okupi to occupy something okupiĝi to become occupied

Kiel eble plej Edit

Kiel eble plej..... followed by an adverb is an expression similar to the English expression "as .... as possible." For example:

Esperanto English
kiel eble plej multe as much as possible
kiel eble plej baldaŭ as soon as possible
kiel eble plej ofte as often as possible
kiel eble plej rapide as rapidly/fast as possible

Dolori al iu ... Edit

In Esperanto, we use dolori al to say that a particular part of the body hurts a person. Because the person who is hurting is specified (dolori al mi, dolori al ŝi), a possessive marker is optional for the body part: Doloras al mi la kapo. OR "La kapo doloras al mi. OR Doloras min la kapo. OR La kapo doloras min.

My head hurts. (Head is the subject)

La brako doloras al ŝi. OR La brako doloras ŝin.

Her arm hurts. (Arm is the subject).

It is also possible to say Mia kapo doloras. (My head hurts.) or Ŝia brako doloras. (Her arm hurts) as we do in English. In these cases the al mi or min is left out but understood.

-n can take the place of certain prepositions Edit

With preposition With -n
La kapo doloras al mi La kapo doloras min.
Ni iras al Londono Ni iras Londonon.

Kontraŭ Edit

Here we learn another use for the word kontraŭ, previously taught in its primary meaning of "against" or "opposite". In a medical setting, kontraŭ can mean "for" as in "for the purpose of treating or curing": Mi prenis medikamenton kontraŭ febro. I took a medication for fever.

Correlatives with -ial Edit

-ial words refer to causation.

English Esperanto
kial why, for what reason
tial that's why, for that reason
ial for some reason
ĉial for every reason
nenial not for any reason

kialo Edit

Kialo means "reason", and comes from the correlative kial, why.

Ekzerci sin: the reflexive form Edit

In English, we use special pronouns, the so-called reflexive pronouns, if the object of a phrase refers to the same person(s) as the subject.

  • I see you (you is a regular pronoun)
  • You see yourself (yourself is a reflexive pronoun - it is used here because the person being seen is the same as the person who is seeing.)

Esperanto doesn't have reflexive pronouns for I/me, you or we/us.

Non-reflexive Reflexive
Ŝi amas min - She loves me Mi amas min - I love myself
Ŝi amas nin - She loves us Ni amas nin - We love ourselves
Ŝi amas vin - She loves you Vi amas vin - You love yourself

Esperanto only has one reflexive pronoun, si, used for he/him, she/her, and they/them.

Ŝi vidas sin ("She sees herself"; the person who is being seen is the same as the person who is seeing.)

Ŝi vidas ŝin ("She sees her"; the person being seen is not the same as the person who is seeing.) Si is gender-neutral and works for both singular and plural.

Non-reflexive

Reflexive

Ŝi amas ŝin - She loves her (another female person) Ŝi amas sin - She loves herself
Li amas lin - He loves him (another male person) Li amas sin - He loves himself
La suno levas ĝin- The sun lifts it (another object) La suno sin levas - The sun rises ("lifts itself")
Ili amas ilin - They love them (another group of people) Ili amas sin - They love themselves

Travel Edit

Ju (mal)pli...des (mal)pli Edit

This is an expression equivalent to "the more... the more" or "the less...the less" in English. Ju always comes before des :

  • Ju pli da mono, des pli da zorgo. (The more money, the more worry.)
  • Ju pli frue, des pli bone. (The earlier, the better.)
  • Ju malpli mi laboras, des malpli mi volas labori. (The less I work, the less I want to work.)
  • Ju pli li atentas, des malpli li komprenas. (The more he pays attention, the less he understands.)
  • Ju malpli da vortoj, des pli bone. (The fewer words, the better.)

Correlatives with -iel Edit

-iel words refer to "how" or "in what way".

English Esperanto
kiel how, in what way
tiel so, in that way
iel in any way
ĉiel in every way
neniel in no way

Tiel...kiel Edit

When paired, tiel and kiel can mean as...as:

Vi estas tiel inteligenta kiel ŝi.

You are as intelligent as she (is).

Tiel alone can also be used for emphasis, as "so":

Kial vi estas tiel kolera?

Why are you so angry?

Congratulations! Edit

You have now learned all of the correlatives! Here is a complete chart:

KI- TI- I- ĈI- NENI-
-A KIA(J)(N) TIA(J)(N) IA(J)(N) ĈIA(J)(N) NENIA(J)(N)
-AL KIAL TIAL IAL ĈIAL NENIAL
-AM KIAM TIAM IAM ĈIAM NENIAM
-E KIE TIE IE ĈIE NENIE
-EL KIEL TIEL IEL ĈIEL NENIEL
-ES KIES TIES IES ĈIES NENIES
-O KIO(N) TIO(N) IO(N) ĈIO(N) NENIO(N)
-OM KIOM TIOM IOM ĈIOM NENIOM
-U KIU(J)(N) TIU(J)(N) IU(J)(N) ĈIU(J)(N) NENIU(N)

Veturi and Vojaĝi Edit

Vojaĝi means to travel, and is a general term. Veturi is more specific, and means to travel by any means of transportation other than your own feet:

  • Kiam vi vojaĝos al Ĉinio? = When will you travel to China?
  • Ni preferas veturi al Berlino per aŭto. = We prefer to travel to Berlin by car.
     

Note: Veturilo means vehicle. Any mobile machine that transports people or cargo is a veturilo, for example: aviadilo (aircraft), motorciklo (motorcycle), aŭto (car).

-n after trans and transiri Edit

Trans means "across, on the far side." When movement is involved, don't forget to add -n to the noun. Compare these two examples:

  • Mia domo troviĝas trans la strato.
    My house is located across the street.
     
  • La infano kuras trans la straton.
    The child is running across the street (to the other side of the street).
     

Transiri means "to go across":

Kial la koko transiris la vojon?

Why did the chicken cross the road?

Barato Edit

The traditional name for India in Esperanto is Hindujo/Hindio. However, current usage favors the name Barato, which is the Esperanto translation of "Bharat", one of the official names of the country. You will find all three forms of the country's name in Esperanto texts.

Vendejo and butiko Edit

Vendejo is a more general term than butiko as it can mean any place where anything is sold, including a wholesale warehouse. Butiko refers to a retail store. However they are often used interchangeably when referring to retail locations.

Pasporta Servo Edit

Pasporta Servo is a hospitality network founded in 1966 and published by the Tutmonda Esperantista Junulara Organizo (TEJO). Free lodging is offered by over a thousand hosts in over 90 countries. Some Esperanto speakers use this network to travel cheaply while others use it to meet interesting people from around the world by hosting them in their own home. In 2009, this service made its transition online and can be found at www.pasportaservo.org.

Affixes 2 Edit

Now let's add more affixes to the mix to multiply your vocabulary even further! You can add an affix to any Esperanto word as long as the result makes sense.

Affix

Definition

Example

Translation

ek- start ekdormi to fall asleep
mis- wrongly miskompreni to misunderstand
re- again relerni to relearn
-aĉ awful domaĉo a shack
-ad continual paroladi to talk for a long time, continuously talk, keep talking
-aĵ thing manĝaĵo a food
-em inclination ludema playful
-ind worthy fidinda trustworthy

Expressions Edit

Ĝis Edit

Note that the word for bye in Esperanto is ĝis. This is short for ĝis la revido (goodbye), which literally means until the re-seeing. So, ĝis actually means until, but by itself means bye.

Education Edit

Participles Edit

Participles are used to create complex verb forms, to express ideas such as "I will have read" or "The wine has been drunk". Participles are formed from verbs. There are two categories of participles: active and passive. Each category has present, future and past tenses.

Tense Active participle ending Passive participle ending
past -int -it
present -ant -at
future -ont -ot

Notice that the vowels "i", "a" and "o" are the same ones used for past, present and future verb endings.

Active participles Edit

The present active participle is used for the English -ing ending: doing, seeing, believing, etc. Unlike English, though, the active participle in Esperanto also has past and future variants:

Tense Participle Translation
present dormanta sleeping
past dorminta having slept
future dormonta about to sleep

For example:

Tense Esperanto "literal explanation" English
present La kato estas dormanta The cat is sleeping.
past La kato estas dorminta "The cat is having slept" The cat has slept.
future La kato estas dormonta "The cat (at this present moment)is about to sleep" The cat is about to sleep.

Passive participles Edit

Let's look at these two English sentences:

The owl ate the mouse.

The mouse was eaten by the owl.

They both say the same thing, but in the second sentence the mouse becomes the focus of interest, and also the subject of the verb, instead of the owl. To use the correct grammatical terms, the first sentence has an active verb, "ate", and the second verb has a passive verb "was eaten". Here are examples of the use of passive participles:

Tense Esperanto "literal translation" English
present La libro estas legata. The book is being read.
past La libro estas legita "The book is having been read" The book has been read.
future La libro estas legota "The book is about to be read" The book is about to be read.

Participles are like adjectives Edit

Participles end in -a like adjectives. In fact, they are used in the same way as adjectives, which means that they agree in number and case with the noun that they belong to:

  • Mi estas skribanta. = I am (in the process of) writing.
  • Ni estas skribantaj. = We are (in the process of) writing.
  • La libro estas legita. = The book (literally: is having been read) has been read.
     
  • La libroj estas legitaj. = The books (literally: are having been read) have been read.
  • Mi vidis kurantan viron. = I saw a man (in the process of) running / I saw a running man.
  • Mi trovis du rompitajn poŝtelefonojn. = I found two mobile phones (literally: having been broken) that had been broken / I found two broken mobile phones.

More about participles Edit

Participles can be combined with past, present and future tenses of esti :

Examples with an active participle:

  • Li estas leganta la libron

He is (in the process of) reading the book.

  • Li estos leginta la libron.

(literally: He will be having read the book)

He will have read the book.

  • Li estas leginta la libron.

(literally: He is having read the book.)

He has read (has finished reading) the book.

  • Li estis leginta la libron.

(literally: He was having read the book)

He had read the book.

Examples with a passive participle:

  • La libro estos legita.

(literally: The book will be having been read.)

The book will have been read.

  • La libro estas legita.

(literally: The book is having been read.)

The book has been read.

  • La libro estis legita.

(literally: The book was having been read.)

The book had been read.

[Note: the "literal" translations above are presented as an aid to understanding and using participles; they are not colloquial English and are not acceptable translations of Esperanto sentences in this course].

Participles + -o ending Edit

An o-ending on a participle generally signifies a person:

la leganto - the reader

la skribanto - the writer

la gvidonto - the future guide

la elektito - the one who got elected

la konato - the one who is known, the acquaintance

La can take the place of possessive pronouns Edit

When talking about relatives, parts of one's body, a piece of one's clothing, an intimate possession, etc, la can take the place of a possessive pronoun; this usage is understood in the appropriate context—for example:

  • La bebo imitas la gefratojn.
     

The baby imitates [his/her/its] siblings.

  • Ŝi vizitos la patrinon dimanĉe.
     

She will visit her mother on Sunday.

  • Mi perdis la koltukon.
     

I lost my scarf.

  • Mi finfine trovis la okulvitrojn.
     

I finally found my glasses.

  • La kapo doloras al mi.
     

My head hurts.

  • Lavu la manojn!
     

Wash your hands!

From Tree 1.0: SPECIAL GUEST EXPLANATION OF PARTICIPLES Edit

Although we haven't taught many of the words he uses, we can't resist including Lee Miller's creative examples:

Participles ending in -e always modify the subject of the sentence:

Elirante el la domo, ŝi lasis fali la kadavron.

While leaving the house, she dropped the cadaver.

Pensante pri participoj, mi trinkis bieron.

As I was thinking about participles, I drank a beer.

Vangofrapite, la gorilo ekploris.

Having been slapped on the cheek, the gorilla burst out in tears.

Participles ending in -a are always adjectives. They describe the state or action of something at some point in time:

La promenanta mortinto ridis gaje.

The walking dead [one] laughed happily.

Mi estis ironta al la elefant-vendejo.

I was [in a state of] going to go to the elephant store.

La koto-tortoj estis aparte bone bakitaj hodiaŭ.

The mud pies were particularly well baked today.

Participles ending in -o almost always refer to persons, or person-like things, with a few traditional exceptions (like “Esperanto”, for instance).

La kuranto ne vidis la arbon, ĉar li rigardis la poŝtelefonon.

The runner didn’t see the tree because he was looking at his phone.

La amanto bedaŭrinde ne estis la amato.

The lover unfortunately was not the beloved.

La kondamnito flugis el prizono sur drako.

The convict flew out of the prison on a dragon.

Sports Edit

Iri, Marŝi, Paŝi , and more Edit

Iri means "to go"; it can be used whether the person is walking or using a vehicle. If you want to specifically emphasize that someone is walking, you can say piediri (literally, to go by foot). However, piediri is somewhat less common than "to walk" in English, as people tend to use the more general iri or something more specific, such as marŝi (to march), paŝi (to step), or promeni (to go for a walk).

verb primary meaning
iri to go, to walk
marŝi to march
paŝi to step
piediri to go by foot, to walk
promeni to take a walk

Review of the Correlatives Edit

KI-

TI-

I-

ĈI NENI
-A KIA(J)(N) TIA(J)(N) IA(J)(N) ĈIA(J)(N) NENIA(J)(N)
-AL KIAL TIAL IAL ĈIAL NENIAL
-AM KIAM TIAM IAM ĈIAM NENIAM
-E KIE TIE IE ĈIE NENIE
-EL KIEL TIEL IEL ĈIEL NENIEL
-ES KIES TIES IES ĈIES NENIES
-O KIO(N) TIO(N) IO(N) ĈIO(N) NENIO(N)
-OM KIOM TIOM IOM ĈIOM NENIOM
-U KIU(J)(N) TIU(J)(N) IU(J)(N) ĈIU(J)(N) NENIU(J)(N)

Affixes 3 Edit

Congratulations! After completing this lesson, you'll know all of Esperanto's 10 prefixes and 31 suffixes! With a little practice, you'll be able to combine these affixes into words with ease, giving you the ability to express yourself with amazing versatility and flexibility.

Affixes

Definition

Example

Translation

dis- dispersal dissendi broadcast, send out
eks- former eksedzo ex-husband
fi- wicked fipolitikisto corrupt politician
pra- ancient prahomo caveman
-er tiny piece of panero breadcrumb
-um (no definite meaning) brakumi to hug
-end must be done lernenda must be learned
-ing holder for a single item kandelingo candlestick
-obl multiplication duobla double
-op group triopo trio

Ideas Edit

Suffix -eco Edit

English uses various suffixes to create abstract nouns which in Esperanto end in -eco:

  • boneco - goodness
  • patrineco - motherhood
  • libereco - freedom
  • amikeco - friendship
  • egaleco - equality
  • riĉeco - wealth
     

La before some abstract nouns Edit

The definite article la is often used before abstract nouns:

  • la amo - not one specific person's love for another, but love in the abstract sense
  • la kulturo - not one specific culture, but culture in the general or abstract sense
  • la espero - not my hope to receive a gift tomorrow, but the idea of hope in the abstract

Dependas de... Edit

To depend on... is translated in Esperanto as dependi de (io) aŭ (iu).

Labori pri... Edit

To work on... is translated in Esperanto as labori pri (io) or prilabori (ion).

Participles 1 Edit

Participles Edit

Participles are used to create complex verb forms, to express ideas such as "I will have read" or "The wine has been drunk". Participles are formed from verbs. There are two categories of participles: active and passive. Each category has present, future and past tenses.

Tense Active participle ending Passive participle ending
past -int -it
present -ant -at
future -ont -ot

Notice that the vowels "i", "a" and "o" are the same ones used for past, present and future verb endings.

In this skill we focus on the active participles.

Active participles Edit

The present active participle is used for the English -ing ending: doing, seeing, believing, etc. Unlike English, though, the active participle in Esperanto also has past and future variants:

Tense Participle Translation
present dormanta sleeping
past dorminta having slept
future dormonta about to sleep

For example:

Tense Esperanto "literal explanation" English
present La kato estas dormanta The cat is sleeping.
past La kato estas dorminta "The cat is having slept" The cat has slept.
future La kato estas dormonta "The cat (at this present moment)is about to sleep" The cat is about to sleep.

Participles are like adjectives Edit

Participles end in -a like adjectives. In fact, they are used in the same way as adjectives, which means that they agree in number and case with the noun that they belong to:

  • Mi estas skribanta. = I am (in the process of) writing.
  • Ni estas skribantaj. = We are (in the process of) writing.
  • Mi vidis kurantan viron. = I saw a man (in the process of) running / I saw a running man

More about active participles Edit

Participles can be combined with past, present and future tenses of esti : Examples with an active participle:

  • Li estas leganta la libron = He is (in the process of) reading the book.
  • Li estos leginta la libron. = (literally: He will be having read the book) / He will have read the book.
  • Li estas leginta la libron. = (literally: He is having read the book.) / He has read (has finished reading) the book.
  • Li estis leginta la libron. = (literally: He was having read the book) / He had read the book.

[Note: the "literal" translations above are presented as an aid to understanding and using participles; they are not colloquial English and are not acceptable translations of Esperanto sentences in this course].

Active participles + -o ending Edit

An o-ending on a participle generally signifies a person:

  • la leganto - the reader
  • la skribanto - the writer
  • la gvidonto - the future guide

More about active participles + -o ending Edit

In sentences that already contain information about the future or past, the -anto ending is ordinarily used:

  • Kiom da partoprenantoj ĉeestos la kongreson? = How many (future) participants will attend the congress?
  • Kiom da partoprenantoj estis en la ludo? = How many (previous) participants were in the game?

Devintus, Povintus Edit

devintus = should have

povintus = could have

Communication Edit

Ĵurnalo, Revuo, Gazeto, etc Edit

Esperanto

English

ĵurnalo daily newspaper
gazeto newspaper, magazine, review
revuo magazine, periodical
gazetaro the press
ĵurnalisto journalist
presi to print

Concepts (Abstract Objects) Edit

Use of adverb after infinitive or infinitive phrase Edit

Lasi la hundon en la aŭto estas kruele. (NOT kruela) To leave the dog in the car is cruel.

Lerni lingvon povas esti facile. (NOT facila)

Learning a language can be easy.

inkluzive de, rilate al Edit

Mi ŝatas manĝi fruktojn, inkluzive de oranĝoj.

I like to eat fruits, including oranges.

Kion vi opinias rilate al mi?

What is your opinion about me?

Participles 2 (Passive Participles) Edit

Participles Edit

Participles are used to create complex verb forms, to express ideas such as "I will have read" or "The wine has been drunk". Participles are formed from verbs. There are two categories of participles: active and passive. Each category has present, future and past tenses.

Tense Active participle ending Passive participle ending
past -int -it
present -ant -at
future -ont -ot

Notice that the vowels "i", "a" and "o" are the same ones used for past, present and future verb endings.

In this skill we focus on the passive participles.

Passive participles Edit

Let's look at these two English sentences:

The owl ate the mouse.

The mouse was eaten by the owl.

They both say the same thing, but in the second sentence the mouse becomes the focus of interest, and also the subject of the verb, instead of the owl. To use the correct grammatical terms, the first sentence has an active verb, "ate", and the second verb has a passive verb "was eaten".

Here are examples of the use of passive participles:

Tense Esperanto "literal translation" English
present La libro estas legata. The book is being read.
past La libro estas legita "The book is having been read" The book has been read.
future La libro estas legota "The book is about to be read" The book is about to be read.

Participles are like adjectives Edit

Participles end in -a like adjectives. In fact, they are used in the same way as adjectives, which means that they agree in number and case with the noun that they belong to: La libro estas legita. = The book (literally: is having been read) has been read.

La libroj estas legitaj. = The books (literally: are having been read) have been read.

Mi trovis du rompitajn poŝtelefonojn. = I found two mobile phones (literally: having been broken) that had been broken / I found two broken mobile phones.

More about participles Edit

Participles can be combined with past, present and future tenses of esti: Examples with a passive participle:

La libro estos legita.

(literally: The book will be having been read.)

The book will have been read.

La libro estas legita.

(literally: The book is having been read.)

The book has been read.

La libro estis legita.

(literally: The book was having been read.)

The book had been read.

[Note: the "literal" translations above are presented as an aid to understanding and using participles; they are not colloquial English and are not acceptable translations of Esperanto sentences in this course].

Participles + -o ending Edit

An o-ending on a participle generally signifies a person:

la elektito - the one who got elected

la konato - the one who is known, the acquaintance

Animals 2 Edit

Duo Edit

Duo is the name given by Duolingo to its mascot, the green owl. It is not the word for owl in Esperanto. The Esperanto word for owl is strigo.

Tiel... kiel Edit

The combination tiel...kiel means as...as:

Ĉu vi kantas tiel bone kiel ŝi?

Do you sing as well as she (does)?

Ŝi estas tiel bela, kiel mia fratino.

She is as pretty as my sister.

Ju (mal)pli...des (mal)pli Edit

This is an expression equivalent to "the more... the more" or "the less...the less" in English. Ju always comes before des :

  • Ju pli da mono, des pli da zorgo. (The more money, the more worry.)
  • Ju pli frue, des pli bone. (The earlier, the better.)
  • Ju malpli mi laboras, des malpli mi volas labori. (The less I work, the less I want to work.)
  • Ju pli li atentas, des malpli li komprenas. (The more he pays attention, the less he understands.)
  • Ju malpli da vortoj, des pli bone. (The fewer words, the better.)

Kiel eble plej Edit

Kiel eble plej..... followed by an adverb is an expression similar to the English expression "as .... as possible." For example:

Esperanto

English

kiel eble plej multe as much as possible
kiel eble plej baldaŭ as soon as possible
kiel eble plej ofte as often as possible
kiel eble plej rapide as rapidly/fast as possible

Politics Edit

The suffix -ism Edit

The Esperanto suffix -ism- can be used to denote a world view, religion, ideology or system, similarly to the suffix "-ism" in English. It can be attached

  1. either to a word that describes the worldview or system, as in naciismo (nationalism) and komunismo" (communism), derived from nacio (nation) and komuna (common, as in common ownership),
  2. or to the name of the founder of that worldview or religion, as in budhismo (Buddhism) and marksismo (Marxism),
  3. or to a word that denotes an adherent of that worldview or religion, as in kristanismo (Christianity), hinduismo (Hinduism), judismo (Judaism) and veganismo (veganism), which are derived from kristano (a Christian), hinduo (a Hindu), judo (a Jew) and vegano (a vegan).

More about the -ism and -ist affixes Edit

If you are interested in exploring this topic in more detail, read on. In 1. above, the adherent of that worldview is usually named by replacing the suffix -ism- by -ist-. So naciisto and komunisto mean a nationalist and a communist. However, as -ist- also denotes a profession, this can in some cases cause confusion, as in the word kapitalisto (a capitalist), which is usually used for a person in control of capital rather than for an adherent of capitalism. To clearly name an adherent in such a case, one can add the suffix -an- after -ism. So kapitalismano is a clear word for an adherent of capitalism, which should not be confused with a capitalist in the sense of a person in control of capital.

In 2. above, the adherent of that world view can be named by replacing -ism- by either -ist- or -an- (-ist- is generally prefered for adherents of a non-religious worldview named after a person, and -an- for adherents of a religion named after a person): So marksisto means "a Marxist", while a Buddhist can be called either budhano or budhisto (the first one is a little bit more common).

The word islamo (Islam) is the name of the religion, and the word of its adherents is formed using the suffix -an-: islamano (a Muslim). If you add the suffix -ism- to islamo, the resulting word islamismo is usually understood as a political ideology based on Islam, like the word "Islamism" in English.

Note that the word kristanismo just like budhismo derives from the title of the founder, but in the case of kristanismo, the name of the religion is based on the word kristano for an adherent of the religion (which in turn derives from the title Kristo (Christ) of the founder), whereas in the case of budhismo it is directly derived from the title Budho (Buddha) of the founder.

Health 2 Edit

Trinki and Drinki Edit

Trinki means to drink any kind of liquid, including water, milk, coffee, wine or beer:

Mi preferas trinki akvon.

I prefer to drink water.

Ŝi ŝatas trinki glason da vino vespere.

She likes to drink a glass of wine in the evening.

Drinki means to drink an alcohol-containing beverage to excess:

Li drinkis tro da biero, kaj malsaniĝis.

He drank too much beer, and got sick.*

Spiritual Edit

The suffix -ism and religions Edit

The Esperanto suffix -ism- can be used to denote a world view, religion, ideology or political system, similarly to the suffix "-ism" in English. The suffix -an- is used to indicate the follower of a religion. However, this does not apply to judo (a Jew) and hinduo (a Hindu), since judismo and hiduismo are derived from the term for their followers, rather than the other way around.

Religion Follower
budhismo budhano
kristanismo kristano
islamo islamano
judismo judo
hinduismo hinduo

Note that the word islamo (Islam) is the name of the religion, and the word for its followers is formed using the suffix -an-: islamano (a Muslim). If you add the suffix -ism- to islamo, the resulting word islamismo is usually understood as a political ideology based on Islam, like the word "Islamism" in English. Its followers are called islamistoj (islamists).

Science Edit

Po Edit

There is no exact equivalent of the word po in English, which means approximately "at the rate of". It is used to indicate that a certain amount has been given to each of several recipients, or given at regular intervals over a certain period of time. Po introduces the amount that is given each time or to each recipient, not the total amount to be distributed. The word po will always be followed by some expression of quantity. In English translations of sentences with po, you will often find the word "each": Mi donis al la infanoj po du pomoj.

I gave two apples to each child.

I gave each child two apples.

La amikoj trinkis po du glasoj da vino.

The friends each drank two glasses of wine.

The friends drank two glasses of wine each.

Po can also be used for prices.

La pomoj kostas po du dolaroj.

The apples cost two dollars each.

Note that po always refers to the quantity being distributed, and NOT to the number of people or the period of time among whom or which they are distributed.

La tri virinoj kantis po kvar kantoj.

The three women sang four songs each.

(i.e. each woman sang four songs, and a total of 3 x 4=12 songs were sung.)

La kvar pomoj kostas po du dolaroj.

The four apples cost two dollars each.

(i.e. each apple costs two dollars, for a total cost of 4 x 2= 8 dollars.)

Po is a preposition, and so is not followed by an accusative, the same as al, de or da. However, these days many people treat po as an adverb and add the accusative ending where appropriate. Both ways are considered acceptable:

Mi donis al la infanoj po du pomojn.

Mi donis al la infanoj po du pomoj.

I gave the children two apples each.

I gave each child two apples.

Ili trinkas po unu glason.

They drink one glass each.

Let's Flirt Edit

Esperanto is a flexible language

The great thing about Esperanto is that it’s so flexible. Nouns can become verbs, verbs can become adjectives, and so on. In this way you can create new words to elegantly express a concept which might require an entire phrase in English. As you have already seen, the adverb ending -e is particularly productive in Esperanto. Here are some examples:

Basic word Meaning Variations
hejmo home hejme: at home
dimanĉo Sunday dimanĉe: on Sundays, on Sunday
biciklo bicycle bicikle: by bike
ĉevalo horse ĉevale: by horse, on horseback
danki to thank danke: thankfully, gratefully
voli to want, wish nevole: unwillingly; kontraŭvole: against his/her will

Here are some examples with different parts of speech: adjectives can be turned into verbs, verbs into adjectives, nouns into verbs and adjectives, to name just a few of the possibilities.

Basic word

Meaning

Variations

rapida quick, fast rapidi: to hurry
malfrua late malfrui: to be late
mateno morning matena: morning (as an adjective)
danki to thank danka: thankful; danke: thankfully
krei to create kreo: creation; krea: creative

Word Building Edit

Formation of compound words Edit

The two or more parts of a compound word may be connected with a hyphen, if desired; they are usually written as a single word. Word formation in Esperanto by combination:

Noun + Verb

voĉo + doni → “voĉdoni” (“to vote”, not “to give voice”)

piedo + iri → “piediri” (“to walk”, “to go by foot”)

kapo + jesi → “kapjesi” (“to consent by nodding the head”)

scii + volo → “scivolo” (“curiosity about something”) → “scivola” (“curious”)

Adjective + Noun

bona + koro → “bonkoro” (not used) → “bonkora” (“good-hearted”, “kind”)

bona + deziro → “bondeziro” (“a wish for someone’s happiness”)

rapida + vagonaro → “rapidvagonaro” (“high-speed train”)

nova + jaro → “novjaro” (“New Year”)

Noun + Noun

domo + pordo → “dompordo” (“door of house”, “entry”)

vino + botelo → “vinbotelo” (“wine bottle”)

floro + poto → “florpoto” (“flowerpot”)

poŝto + marko → “poŝtmarko” (“stamp”)

Note that combining an adjective with a noun or a verb with a noun yields a word with a new meaning. Combining a noun with a noun yields a word that describes the relationship between the two nouns.

Congratulations! Edit

You've reached the final skill of Duolingo's Esperanto course! For ideas on how to continue using the language after finishing this course, please see: Finished the Esperanto tree, now what?

Da/De (from Tree 1.0) Edit

DA AND DE Edit

Although both da and de can be translated into English as of, they have different meanings:

Use da when you're talking about quantity.

Use de when talking about possession.

Note: the direct object -n ending (accusative) is not used after da or de.

For example:

Esperanto

English

glaso da vino a glass of wine (quantity)
taso da teo a cup of tea (quantity)
la patrino de la knabo the mother of the boy /the boy's mother (possession)
la koloro de la lakto the color of the milk / the milk's color (possession

KIOM Edit

Kiom means "how much" or "how many."

How much do you eat?

Kiom vi manĝas?

How much do you love me?

Kiom vi amas min?

How much is in the cup?

Kiom estas en la taso?

KIOM DA Edit

When you ask "how much" or "how many" of a specific thing or things, the word "of" cannot be omitted as it is in English:

How much (of) bread do you eat?

Kiom da pano vi manĝas?

How many (of) apples do you eat?

Kiom da pomoj vi manĝas?

How much (of) tea is in the cup?

Kiom da teo estas en la taso?

MULTE DA Edit

Multe da means a lot of, lots of, or many:

A lot of milk

Multe da lakto

Many (or a lot of) people

Multe da homoj

KIOM AĜAS Edit

How old are you?

Kiom vi aĝas?

(Literally: How much you are-age?)

Kiom is used with age, since age is a quantity (of years).

Note: An alternative way to ask someone's age is Kiom da jaroj vi havas? (Literally "How many years do you have?")

MANKO DE Edit

A lack of...

Manko de...

A lack of something is not considered a quantity, so one says manko de and never manko da.

For example:

A lack of money

Manko de mono

MORE ABOUT DA AND DE Edit

When you're talking about a quantity of a specific thing or set of things, as opposed to a type of thing, you use de la. For example:

Mi bezonas 5 kilogramojn da sukero.

I need 5 kilograms of sugar.

Mi bezonas 5 kilogramojn de la sukero.

I need 5 kilograms of the sugar.

Mi volas aĉeti 10 botelojn da biero.

I want to buy 10 bottles of beer.

Mi volas aĉeti 10 botelojn de la plej bona biero.

I want to buy 10 bottles of the best beer.

Kiom da nigra pano vi aĉetas?

How much black bread are you buying?

Kiom de la nigra pano vi aĉetas?

How much of the black bread are you buying?

Another way of expressing this is that "da" connects two words, in which the first expresses a measurement (like kiom, boteloj, kilogramoj), and the second is a category (like sukero, biero, pano). "Bovloj" is a category, while "la bovloj" is not; it is a specific item.

A general rule you can remember is that "da" is never followed immediately by "la + X".

Infinitive (from Tree 1.0) Edit

INFINITIVE Edit

The ending -i indicates the infinitive, for example ami (to love). This is the neutral form found in a dictionary. It is often used to complement the verbs povas (can), volas (want), devas (must), and ŝatas (like). For example:

  • Mi volas danci. = I want to dance.
* Mi ŝatas manĝi. = I like to eat.
* Ĉu vi povas fari tion? = Can you do that?

NEK ... NEK ... Edit

Nek means both "neither" and "nor" and follows English usage patterns. It is a conjunction like kaj and aŭ. For example:

Nek la rozo nek la pomo estas flava.

Neither the rose nor the apple is yellow.

Nek la rozon nek la pomon mi ŝatas.

I like neither the rose nor the apple.

La rozo estas nek rozkolora nek bela.

The rose is neither pink nor pretty.

SCII & KONI (TO KNOW) Edit

Both scii and koni can be translated as "to know." While scii refers to intellectual knowledge, koni refers to knowing someone or something from experience.

Scii Edit

Use scii when you know a specific fact :

Mi scias la respondon.

I know the answer.

Ĉu vi scias lian adreson?

Do you know his address?

Sentences that begin " I know that ..." will always be translated as " Mi scias, ke ..." as they are describing knowledge of a fact. For example:

Mi scias, ke Francio estas en Eŭropo.

I know that France is in Europe.

Mi scias, ke li ŝatas trinki kafon.

I know that he likes to drink coffee.

Koni Edit

Typically, koni will be used to know a person or an animal. For example:

Ĉu vi konas mian patron?

Do you know my father?

Ŝi bone konas mian hundon.

She knows my dog well.

It can also be used to refer to a place or thing that one knows well from experience:

Mi konas Francion tre bone.

I know France very well. (Because I visited there often.)

Mi konas tiun libron

I know that book. (Because I already read it.)

Note: You will never use konas, ke because konas cannot be used to refer to knowing a fact. So you can say: Mi scias, ke Esperanto estas internacia lingvo. (I know that Esperanto is an international language.) But you cannot say: Mi konas, ke Esperanto estas internacia lingvo.

Here is an example of scii and koni in the same sentence:

Mi scias, ke vi konas ŝin.

I know that you know her.

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